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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU
NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION

Introduction

4.1 India is endowed with a very vast solar energy potential. Most parts of the country have about 300 sunny days. Average solar radiation incident over the land is in the range of 4-7 kWh per day. The solar energy can be utilized through solar photovoltaic technology which enables direct conversion of sunlight into energy and solar thermal technologies which utilizes heat content of solar energy into useful applications. Over the last three decades several solar energy based systems and devices have been developed and deployed in India which are successfully providing energy solutions for lighting, cooking, water heating, air heating, drawing and electricity generation. The research and development efforts have also helped in better efficiency, affordability and quality of the products. As a result many solar energy systems and devices are commercially available with affordable cost in the market.

4.2 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on 11th January, 2010. The Mission targets include (i) deployment of 20,000 MW of grid connected solar power by 2022, (ii) 2,000 MW of off-grid solar applications including 20 million solar lights by 2022, (iii) 20 million sq. m. solar thermal collector area, (iv) to create favourable conditions for developing solar manufacturing capability in the country; and (v) support R&D and capacity building activities to achieve grid parity by 2022. The Mission is to be implemented in three phases.

4.3 For the first phase of the Mission, the Cabinet had approved a target to set up 1,100 MW grid connected solar plants including 100 MW capacity as rooftop and other small solar power plants till March 2013. In addition, a target of 200 MW capacity equivalent off-grid solar applications and 7 million square meter solar thermal collector area were also approved. The Cabinet had also approved setting up of large utility scale grid power plants through bundling of solar power with the unallocated power available from coal-based NTPC stations and the policy to provide generation based incentive for small grid connected solar power plants.

PHASE-I OF JNNSM (2010-13)

A) Grid Connected Solar Power

4.4 The Phase-I comprises of two sub-components viz., (i) 1,000 MW of large grid solar plants connected to grid at voltage level of 33 KV and above; and (ii) 100 MW of rooftop and small solar plants, connected to grid below 33 KV.

1,000 MW capacity Grid Solar Power Plants

4.5 In order to facilitate grid connected solar power generation under the first phase, without any direct funding by the Government, Cabinet had approved NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited (NVVN) as the nodal agency to purchase 1000 MW of solar power from the project developers, bundle it with the unallocated power available

from the NTPC coal-based stations and sell this “bundled” power to the State Utilities. It was decided to select projects of 500 MW capacity each based on solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Considering the relatively longer gestation period of Solar Thermal Projects i.e. over two years, the selection of projects for 500 MW was completed in FY 2010-11. The size of solar thermal projects was in the range of 20 MW to 100 MW per project developer.

4.6 During 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, the size of PV projects in the first batch in 2010-11 was fixed at 5 MW per project.

4.7 In February 2010, the guidelines for migration scheme was approved. A total of 16 projects of 84 MW capacity (54 MW for PV and 30 MW for solar thermal) were selected. The last date for commissioning of 54 MW capacity PV projects was by end of October 2011 out of which PV Projects of 48 MW capacity have been commissioned and connected to grid. The 30 MW capacity solar thermal projects were to be commissioned by March 2013 out of which 2.5 MW capacity of solar thermal power has been connected to grid.

4.8 The selection of new grid solar power projects comprising of 150 MW of Solar PV and 470 MW of solar thermal capacities was started by NVVN in August 2010. The projects were selected based on tariff discounting. Bidders offered substantial discounts as given below: -

4.9 Overview of outcomes of the bidding process for selection of solar Power projects under JNNSM are as under:

Solar PV
Solar Thermal

CERC Approved tariff for Solar PV (Normal Depreciation)

CERC Approved tariff for Solar PV (Normal Depreciation)

CERC Approved tariff for Solar Thermal
(Normal Depreciation)

1791 Paise / kwh

1531 Paise /kwh

Max discount
offered (Paise/kwh)

Min. discount
offered (Paise/kwh)

Max discount
offered (Paise/kwh)

Min. discount
offered (Paise/kwh)

696

515

482

307

Final tariff after discount for Solar PV (Paise / kwh)

Final tariff after discount for Solar Thermal (Paise / kwh)

1095
1095
1049
1224

4.10 In all, a total of 704 MW capacity grid connected solar power projects were selected, which comprised of 500 MW capacity of solar thermal power projects and 204 MW of PV power projects. The Ministry also announced a payment security mechanism to provide comfort to bankers for payment by NVVN to solar project developers in the event of defaults by the purchasing State Utilities. As approved by the Cabinet, a provision of Rs.484.00 crore has been kept in the Solar Payment Security Account.

10 MW Solar Power Plant by Finnsurya at Village Kepeli, Tehsil - Tarana, Indore, MP

4.11 Out of 150 MW of solar PV grid connected projects, 140 MW have been commissioned (2 projects of 5 MW each could not achieve financial closure). Regarding 470 MW of solar thermal projects, the commissioning was scheduled by May, 2013. Capacity of 200 MW has been commissioned till date.

4.12 Guidelines of Batch-II of Phase-I of JNNSM for balance 350 MW Solar PV capacity was issued on 24-8-2011. Notice for request for submission was issued by NVVN on 24-8-2011 and response for 154 bidders for 218 Solar PV Projects for 2515 MW was received. The discount offered for Solar PV Projects were as under:-

Solar PV

CERC Approved tariff for Solar PV (Normal Depreciation)

1539 Paise / kwh

Max discount offered (Paise)

Max discount offered (Paise)

790

595

Final tariff after discount for Solar PV (Paise / kwh)

 

749

944

4.13 Letter of Intent (LoI) was issued to 22 selected bidders for 28 Solar Power Projects. 27 projects totalling 340 MW achieved financial closure and the commissioning schedule of these projects was by February, 2013. 27 projects totalling 330 MW grid connected solar PV projects have been declared commissioned.

100 MW capacity Solar Power Plants

4.14 MNRE announced the Guidelines for Rooftop PV and Small Solar Power Generation Programme (RPSSGP) for solar power plants connected to distribution network (Below 33 kV) in June 2010. This component of the Mission was designed essentially as a State driven scheme to encourage the States to declare their Solar Policy for grid connected projects focusing on distribution network and to strengthen the tail-end of the grid. Under this scheme, the State utilities purchase power from any of the generation companies based on the tariff fixed/approved by the respective State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs). Another purpose of the scheme was to encourage as many States as possible to set up small solar grid connected projects. This would also help to create a database of performance of solar plants under different climatic and grid conditions. This was considered necessary for large-scale replication in future, particularly for meeting rural needs in the next phase of the Solar Mission.

4.15 Under these guidelines, a cap of a maximum 20 MW capacity projects per State was put. The project size capacity was limited to a maximum of 2 MW to be connected to distribution grid. The role of the Ministry was limited to providing a fixed Generation Based Incentive (GBI) to the State utilities at a rate equal to the difference of the CERC tariff for 2010-11 (Rs. 17.91 per kWh) and a reference rate of Rs. 5.5 per kWh. The projects were registered with IREDA through a web-based process, and 78 projects were selected to set up 98 MW capacity projects from 12 States. 71 projects of total capacity 90.80 MW have been commissioned.

B) Off-grid Solar Applications including Solar Heating

4.16 The guidelines for implementation of off-grid solar applications were also announced on 16th June 2010. A provision of 30% capital subsidy and/or soft loan @5% was made for general category states. In case of solar photovoltaic applications, a capital subsidy limited to a maximum of 90% of the benchmark cost is available for Government driven projects in the special category states viz. NE, Sikkim, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and also the international border districts and islands. Keeping in view special needs of the region and overall policy of the Government, IREDA was assigned the task to provide refinance to the interested banks to enable them to offer loans to consumers at 5% annual interest rate. In order to encourage multiple channel partners to access support and reach out to the people, a process of accreditation of solar system integrators was introduced by the Ministry. Reputed agencies such as CRISIL, Fitch and ICRA were involved in the process.

4.17 Out of capacity of 200 MW, Ministry fixed a target of sanctioning 32 MW capacity projects in 2010-11 against which 40.6 MW capacity off-grid solar PV projects were sanctioned in 2010-11. Another 77.471 MWp were sanctioned during 2011-12

against a target of 68 MWp for the year. During 2012-13, 134.5 MWp capacity projects were sanctioned. The total capacity sanctioned during Phase-I thus was 252.5 MW. For solar thermal collector area during the first phase, about 7.01 million square meter of collector area has been installed against a target of 7.0 million.

Summary of targets and achievements during Phase-I of JNNSM (2010-13)

Application Segment

Target for Phase I
(2010-13)

Achievements till March, 2013

Grid solar power
(large plants, roof top & distribution grid plants)

1,100 MW

1686.44 MW

Off-grid solar applications

200 MW

252.5 MW

Solar Thermal Collectors (SWHS, Solar Cooking, solar cooling, Industrial process heat applications, etc.)

7 million

sq.meters

7.01 million

sq.meters

C) Domestic Manufacture

4.18 One of the objectives of the Mission is to substantially enhance solar manufacturing across the value chain in the country. In line with this objective in the first phase of the Mission, 30% domestic content was made necessary for grid solar thermal projects. This condition is in place for all solar thermal power projects selected in the first phase. For the photovoltaic projects selected during 2010-11, use of domestic crystalline silicon modules was mandatory, but solar cells and modules made with other technologies can be imported. In Batch-II projects, selected in 2011-12 use of crystalline silicon solar cells and modules was allowed only if domestically manufactured. Products with other technologies i.e. thin film and CSP could however be imported.

D) Institutional Arrangements

4.19 Solar Energy Corporation of India, a Section-25 Company, was incorporated on 20th September 2011 with an authorized Capital of Rs.2,000 crore and its office at Saket, New Delhi. This Company is functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of New & Renewable Energy and would implement and facilitate the various activities of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM). Secretary, MNRE is functioning as Chairman, Solar Energy Corporation of India. All four whole time Directors viz. Director (Solar), Director (Power Systems), Director (Finance) and Director (HR) have been appointed. The Company has already started its normal functioning.

4.20 Solar Energy Research Advisory Council (SERAC) has been set up to advise on research policy with a view to achieve Mission targets.

PHASE-II OF JNNSM (2013-17)

4.21 Phase-I of JNNSM (2010-13) has generated huge interest in the solar sector wherein Gird connected and off-grid projects were commissioned throughout the country. Achievements of Phase-I have exceeded the target set for the period. This momentum needs to be carried forward to the next phase.

Targets of Phase-II

Application Segment

Target for Phase 2 (2013-17)

Grid solar power
(large plants, roof top & distribution grid plants)

9,000 MW

Off-grid solar applications

800 MW

Solar Thermal Collectors (SWHS, solar cooking, solar cooling, Industrial process heat applications, etc.)

8 million sq. meters

Focus area under Phase-II of JNNSM

A) Grid connected Projects

4.22 MNRE has kept a minimum target of adding at least 9,000 MW solar capacities to grid during Phase-II. Under this target of 9,000 MW, at least 3,000 MW will be developed under Central scheme and at least 6,000 MW under State schemes.

4.23 Unlike Phase-I, JNNSM Phase-II aim for achieving significantly higher scales of targets. Hence, Ministry has contemplated all possible options for implementation of the Mission. Selection of capacity for Phase-II, grid connected projects is being done through different schemes such as Bundling, Generation Based Incentive (GBI), Viability Gap Funding (VGF). This allocation of target capacity may be altered depending upon the availability of resources.

Action Taken

4.24 The Ministry has formulated a Scheme for Setting up of 750 MW of Grid-connected Solar PV Power projects under Batch-I of Phase-II (2013-17) of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) with Viability Gap Funding support to the tune of Rs.1875 crore (maximum) from National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF). After obtaining approval of Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) on 03.10.2013, the Guidelines for Implementation of Scheme for Setting up of 750 MW Grid-connected Solar PV Power Projects under Batch-I of JNNSM Phase-II was issued on 25.10.2013. Request for Selection (RfS) document was issued by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) on 28-10-2013.

4.25 The projects are to be set up on Build-Own-Operate (BOO) basis. The selected Solar Power Developers will sell power to SECI at a fixed levelised tariff of Rs.5.45 per kWh for 25 years. SECI will sell this power to those State Utilities/ Discoms who are willing to buy solar power at a fixed tariff of Rs.5.50 per unit for 25 years.

4.26 Letter of Intent (LoIs) were issued to the successful bidders on 26th February, 2014, by SECI for the entire capacity of 750 MW and subsequently PPAs have been signed for 700 MW capacity. PPAS could not be signed for 50 MW capacity (20 MW in Part-A (DCR) and 30 MW in Part-B(Open)) as the selected bidders did not offer to sign the PPAs for these Projects. In view of this, LOIs issued for these Projects have been cancelled and the BGs submitted towards EMD have been encashed by SECI. Power Sale Agreements (PSAs) for 515 MW have been concluded between SECI and the State Utilities have been executed.

FUTURE PLANS

Scheme for setting up over 300 MW of Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects by Defence Establishments under Ministry of Defence and Para Military Forces with Viability Gap Funding under Phase-II/III of JNNSM.

4.27 The Establishments in the border area and remote locations use diesel as the primary source of energy. In some areas they pay very high tariff. Solar power is clean source of energy and can replace diesel power generation to a large extent. Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and other Defence Establishments agreed to set up solar power projects on the large tracts of land and vacant rooftops which they own.

4.28 The salient features of the scheme are as under:

  1. A capacity of 300 MW will be set up in various Establishments of Ministry of Defence i.e. Establishments of Army, Navy, Air Force, Ordnance Factory Board, Defence Laboratories and Defence PSUs etc. Para Military Forces would also be covered under this scheme. Minimum size of the project shall be 1 MW.
  2. Inter-Ministerial group has recommended NCEF Support of Rs. 750 cr. @ Rs. 2.5 cr../MW with DCR content.
  3. The projects under this Scheme will mandatorily use solar cells/modules which are made in India.
  4. The aforesaid Establishments would identify locations for developing solar projects, anywhere in the country including border areas from time to time.
  5. The Defence organizations/Establishments will be free to own the power projects i.e. get a EPC contractor to build the project for them or get a developer who makes the investment and supplies power at a fixed tariff of Rs.5.50 per unit for 25 years (or Rs. 4.75 with AD). EPC has been recommended by MHA, Planning Commission and MoD.
  6. The MoD or the Defence Organization would be free to follow their own procurement systems or develop detailed guidelines or procedures for tendering. Tendering for inviting solar project developers to bid for developing projects, would be done by the Defence Establishments themselves. They may also lay down guidelines to cover security aspects related to working in Defence/Paramilitary Establishments. They can also take SECI on a turnkey basis.
  7. The solar project developers will be provided VGF based on the bid. The bidders will be selected on the basis of bids for minimum VGF requirement for the project with commitment to supply solar power at Rs.5.50/kwh for 25 years. However, the upper limits of the VGF are as follows:

Category-I: Rs.2.5 cr./MW for project capacity upto 5 MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower;

Category-II: Rs. 2 cr./MW for project capacity greater than 5 MW upto 25 MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower; and

Category-III: Rs. 1.5 cr./MW for project capacity greater than 25 MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower.

Implementation of scheme for setting up 1000 MW of Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects by Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs) and Government of India organizations under various Central / State Schemes / self-use / 3rd party sale / merchant sale with Viability Gap Funding (VGF) under Batch-V of Phase-II of JNNSM

4.29 CPSUs and Government of India organizations participate in various Central/State Government Tenders, from time to time, for sale of solar power to State Utilities/ Discoms/ self-use/3rd party sale/merchant sale. Such CPSUs and Government of India organizations are eligible under the scheme.

4.30 The salient features of the scheme are as under:

  1. Period of Implementation: 2014-15 to 2016-17
  2. VGF would be provided through Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) at a fixed rate of Rs.1 cr./MW for projects where domestically produced Cells and Modules are used, and Rs.50 lakh/MW would be provided in cases where domestically produced modules are used.
  3. Inter-Ministerial group has recommended NCEF Support of Rs. 1000 cr.
  4. The CPSUs may also sign Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs)/ Power Sale Agreements (PSAs) with State Utilities/ Discoms at tariff determined by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) or State Regulators or may develop projects for their own use or for sale of power to a third party at mutually negotiated rates.

4.31 The major impact of the scheme is solar capacity of 1000 MW to be added in 3 years period which will give a boost to domestic manufacturers of Solar Cells/Modules to enable them become competitive in comparison to the imported solar cells/modules.

Implementation of Scheme for Development of Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects.

4.32 Hon’ble Finance Minister in his 2014-15 Budget Speech, inter-alia, announced as under:

“New & Renewable Energy deserves a very high priority. It is proposed to take up Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Laddakh in J&K. I have set aside a sum of Rs.500 crore for this.”

4.33 The scheme for development of Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects has been conceived on the lines of the “Charanka Solar Park” in Gujarat which is a first-of-its-kind large scale Solar Park in India with contiguous developed land and transmission connectivity.

4.34 This scheme envisages supporting the States in setting up solar parks at various locations in the country with a view to create required infrastructure for setting up of Solar Power Projects. The solar parks will provide suitable developed land with all clearances, transmission system, water access, road connectivity, communication network, etc. This scheme will facilitate and speed up installation of grid connected solar power projects for electricity generation on a large scale. All the States and Union Territories are eligible for benefitting under the scheme.

4.35 The salient features of the scheme are as under:

  1. It is proposed to set up at least 25 Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects targeting over 20,000 MW of solar power installed capacity within a span of 5 years starting from 2014-15.
  2. The capacity of the Solar Parks shall be 500 MW and above. However, smaller parks may be considered in Himalayan Region & other hilly States where contiguous land may be difficult to acquire in view of difficult terrain and in States where there is acute shortage of non-agricultural land.
  3. The solar parks will be developed in collaboration with the State Governments and their implementing agencies. The choice of implementing agency for developing and maintaining the park is left to the State Government.
  4. The implementing agency may be sanctioned a grant of upto Rs.25 Lakh/Park for preparing Detailed Project Report (DPR) of the Solar Park.
  5. Thereafter, application may be made by the implementing agency to Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) for the grant of up to Rs.20 lakh/MW or 30% of the project cost including Grid-connectivity cost, whichever is lower. The approved grant will be released by SECI as per milestones prescribed in the scheme.
  6. Financial Implications:

A total fund requirement to provide Central Financial Assistance (CFA) is estimated as Rs. 4050.00 crore with the following year-wise break up:

Year
Disbursement of funds (Rs. in Crore)
2014-15
500.00
2015-16
550.00
2016-17
600.00
2017-18
1000.00
2018-19
1400.00
4050.00

Specific Advantages:

  1. Solar parks will enable development of solar power in remote areas where land is inexpensive.
  2. As transmission system will be developed for the entire park, developers will not have to set up their own transmission lines. This will not only save money but will also avoid damaging the land scape of the area as only limited transmission lines would be laid.
  3. The developers would be able to set up projects very fast as they will not have to get statutory and other clearances.
  4. India will emerge as a major solar power producing country as nowhere in the world solar parks are being developed on such a large scale.

Grid Connected Solar PV Power Projects (3300 MW) by NTPC and other PSUs.

4.36 This scheme will be implemented by NTPC Ltd. through a transparent bidding process. Several PSUs have major plans to set large solar power projects. NTPC has already set around 100 MW solar plants while CIL has signed MOU for setting up solar projects with SECI. Petroleum sector companies have also plans to enter into this sector. Table 4.1 gives the Commissioning Status of Grid Connected Solar Power Projects under JNNSM.

Table 4.1 Commissioning Status of Grid Connected Solar Power Projects under JNNSM

Sr.
No

State/UT

Total
MNRE
Projects
MW

State
Policy
MW

RPO
MW

REC
Scheme
MW

Pvt.
Initiative
(Roof top)
MW

CPSUs
MW

Total
commissioned
capacity
(MW)

1

Andhra Pradesh

94.75

97.19

 

32.3

1.62

10

235.86

2

Arunachal Pradesh

0.025

 

 

 

 

 

0.025

3

Chhattisgarh

4

 

 

3.1

0.5

 

7.6

4

Gujarat

0

873.05

50

6

 

 

929.05

5

Haryana

7.8

 

 

 

 

5

12.8

6

Jharkhand

16

 

 

 

 

 

16

7

Karnataka

5

40

10

 

3

9

67

8

Kerala

0.025

 

 

 

 

 

0.025

9

Madhya Pradesh

15.25

222.55

 

75.78

 

65

378.58

10

Maharashtra

47

126

36

113.75

0.15

 

322.9

11

Odisha

12

5

 

4.5

0.26

10

31.76

12

Punjab

9

39

 

7.52

0.25

 

55.77

13

Rajasthan

593.5

25

40

193

 

 

851.5

14

Tamil Nadu

16

3

 

83.06

2.7

 

104.76

15

Telangana

 

 

 

2

6

 

8

16

Uttar Pradesh

12

2

 

 

0.2

15.51

29.71

17

Uttarakhand

5

 

 

 

 

 

5

18

West Bengal

2.05

5

 

 

0.16

 

7.21

19

Andaman & Nicobar

0.1

 

 

 

 

5

5.1

20

Delhi

0.335

 

 

2.14

2.99

 

5.465

21

Lakshadweep

0.75

 

 

 

 

 

0.75

22

Puducherry

0.025

 

 

 

 

 

0.025

23

Chandigarh

2

 

 

 

 

 

2

24

Others

0.79

 

 

 

 

 

0.79

TOTAL

843.4

1437.79

136

523.15

17.83

119.51

3077.68

Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects with Viability Gap Funding under Batch-III of Phase II of the JNNSM

JNNSM Phase II Batch I

4.37 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) is a major initiative of the Government of India which is being administered by Ministry of New and Renewable

Energy (MNRE) with active participation from States to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenge. The Mission was launched in January 2010 by Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. The objective of the Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its large scale diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. The Mission has set a target, amongst others, for deployment of grid connected solar power capacity of 20,000 MW by 2022 to be achieved in 3 phases (first phase upto 2012-13, second phase from 2013 to 2017 and the third phase from 2017 to 2022). To make solar power affordable to buying utilities, MNRE is exploring different options viz. Generation Based Incentives (GBI), Bundling with unallocated thermal power and Viability Gap Fund (VGF) support.

  • Phase I (up to March 2013): 1000 MW grid-connected solar power capacity addition was targeted through a scheme of bundling with cheaper thermal power from NTPC power plants. NVVN, a subsidiary of NTPC has been the nodal agency for implementation of the scheme.

  • Second Phase (Up to March 2017): In the second phase, the mission targets further capacity addition of 9000 MW (3000 MW under Central Scheme and 6000 MW through state policies).

JNNSM Phase II Batch I

4.38 Under JNNSM Phase II Batch I, a scheme for implementation of grid connected Solar PV capacity of 750 MW through VGF support was launched in October 2013. The Guidelines for implementation of the Scheme were evolved through consultative process. The scheme is being implemented by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI), New Delhi. For the first, the scheme envisaged projects in two categories i.e. DCR and Open. Power under this scheme is made available to Discoms / State Utilities at a tariff of Rs.5.50 / kWh fixed for 25 years. As a part of DCR, both solar cells and modules used in the solar PV power plants must be made in India. The salient features of Guidelines are as follows:

  • Total Aggregated Capacity: 750 MW, (375 MW each in Part A (DCR) and Part B (Open)).
  • Project Size (MW): 10/20/30/40/50. Projects are to be selected through competitive bidding process based on VGF sought by the bidders.
  • Towards disbursement of VGF, Rs.1875 Crore (i.e. Rs.2.5 Cr./MW) has been sanctioned from National Clean Energy fund, managed by Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
  • The VGF is to be disbursed in six trenches in following manner: 50% on achieving the complete Project commissioning (COD) and balance 50% @ of 10% at the end of each year from COD for 5 years from COD, subject to the fulfilment of power generation criteria.
  • Projects are to be selected through competitive bidding process based on VGF sought by the bidders.
  • The bidders selected (SPD) based on the RfS document (Request for selection)

issued by SECI shall enter in to Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) for a term of 25 years with SECI within 30 days of issue of Letter of Intent (LOI) by SECI. SECI shall in turn be entering into Power Sale Agreements with Discoms / State Utilities.
  • The Project Company shall report tie-up of Financing Arrangements for the Projects within 210 days from the date of signing of Power Purchase Agreement.
  • Projects are to be commissioned within 13 months from the date of signing of PPA and with imposition of liquidated damages the maximum time period allowed for commissioning is 24 months form the date of signing of PPA.

Progress

4.39 SECI has floated Request for Selection Document in October 2013 and pre-bid meetings were conducted for addressing queries of the prospective bidders. Good responses were received for both categories i.e. Part A and Part B. In case of Part A, the responses were approx. twice the available capacity whereas in case of Part B, it was approx. four times.

4.40 For selected Projects, VGF requirement in case of Part A varied between Rs.2.456 Cr./MW to Rs.1.35 Cr./MW with an average of Rs.2.129 Cr./MW whereas in case of Part B, VGF requirement varied between Rs.1.35 Cr./MW to 0.175 Cr./MW with an average of Rs.1.06 Cr./MW. Through transparent competitive bidding process, a saving of approximately 39% of the VGF amount occurred. Letters of Intent to the selected Projects were issued by SECI in February 2014. PPAs for the selected Projects were signed in March 2014. Projects are under advanced stages of implementation and scheduled to be commissioned by 28th April 2015. Figure 1.2 gives pictorial representation of Project progress under the Scheme.

Approach of Viability Gap Funding in Phase-II of JNNSM

4.41 SECI is designated as the nodal agency for implementation of MNRE schemes for developing grid connected solar power capacity through VGF mode in the country. Under the Batch-III and Batch-IV of Phase-II JNNSM, it is envisaged to add further a total solar PV capacity of 7000 MW in various tranches proposed as follows:

  1. Batch-III

:

2000 MW: 2015-16 to 2016-17

  1. Batch-V

:

5000 MW: 2016-2021

4.42 The above schedule is indicative and may be changed depending upon response of the market and Government policies.

Rooftop PV & Small Solar Power Generation Programme RPSSGP Scheme

4.43 The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) launched a Programme on Generation-Based Incentives (GBI) to give a boost to Rooftop PV and Small Solar Power Plants connected to the distribution network (at or below 33 kV level. The scheme is part of JNNSM tail end projects under GBI scheme which is referred to as “Rooftop PV & Small Solar Power Generation Programme” (RPSSGP).

4.44 A generation based incentive (GBI) is being given to the utilities to cover the difference between the tariff determined by Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) and the base price of Rs.5.50 /kWh (FY 2010-11) with 3% escalation per annum. IREDA has been designated as “Programme Administrator” by MNRE for administering the Generation Based Incentive Programme “Rooftop PV & Small Solar Power Generation Programme” (RPSSGP).

4.45 Currently, 71 projects have been commissioned under RPSSGP scheme with installed capacity of 90.8 MW. The projects have been commissioned in 12 states as per the details given in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2 State Wise Projects Commissioned under RPSSGP Scheme

Sl. No.

State

No. of Projects

Capacity (MW)

1

Andhra Pradesh

10

9.75

2

Chhattisgarh

2

4

3

Haryana

8

7.8

4

Jharkhand

8

16

5

Madhya Pradesh

3

5.25

6

Maharashtra

3

5

7

Odisha

7

7

8

Punjab

5

6

9

Rajasthan

12

12

10

Tamil Nadu

6

6

11

Uttarakhand

3

5

12

Uttar Pradesh

4

7

 

Total

71

90.8

4.46 The annual requirement of funds for release of GBI to various utilities is Rs.155.Cr. (approx.). Details of the module technology and Module Suppliers under the RPSSGP scheme is as given in the Table 4.3 and Table 4.4; along with percentage distribution of the module type and module suppliers in the scheme.

Table 4.3 Module Technology options used in the RPSSGP Scheme

Technology Wise
Number

Mono Crystalline

4

Poly Crystalline

33

Thin Film

30

Mixed

4

TOTAL

71

Table 4.4 Module suppliers under “RPSSGP” Scheme

Module Supplier

Capacity (MW)

Indigenous

52.82

International

37.98

Total

90.8

Grid-Interactive Rooftop And Small SPV Power Plants Programme

4.47 There is a large potential available for generating solar power using unutilized space on rooftops and wastelands around buildings. Small quantities of power generated by each individual household, industrial building, commercial buildings or any other type of building can be used to partly fulfill the requirement of the building occupants and surplus, if any, can be fed into the grid. If the existing roof space of buildings is utilized, the Grid Connected SPV Rooftop systems on buildings can also replace/ supplement the existing DG gensets installed for minimum load requirement for operation during load shedding. These loads are generally varying between 25kW to 100 kW or so. This is possible, if the distribution company (DISCOMS) for that area allows the power to be fed into the grid and has the necessary arrangements including availability of meters.

4.48 In grid interactive rooftop or small SPV system, the DC power generated from SPV panel is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid either of 11 kV three phase lines or of 220 single phase line depending on the system installed at institution/commercial establishment or residential complex. They generate power during the day time which is utilized fully by powering captive loads and feeding excess power to the grid as long as grid is available. In case, where solar power is not sufficient due to cloud cover etc., the captive loads are served by drawing power from the grid.

Achievement

4.49 MNRE has launched a national level ‘Grid Connected Rooftop and Small Solar Power Plants Programme’ on 26.06.2014 which provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) upto 30% of the capital cost for plants ranging from 1 kWp to 500 kWp in residential, commercial and institutional sectors. CFA is being tapered down upto 15%.

4.50 So far, 13 States namely Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have issued the solar policies that include grid connected rooftop solar projects. The State Electricity Regulatory Commissions of 17 States i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand and West Bengal, Chandigarh, Andaman & Nicobar, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, Pondicherry and Goa have issued the appropriate regulatory orders. MNRE is pursuing with remaining States to issue their solar policies and regulatory framework.

4.51 The Ministry has also written to the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance to consider granting Income Tax Exemption to the users who install grid connected solar rooftop plants in their roofs. The Ministry has also requested to all the Public Sector Bank (PSBs) for providing loans to the loan seekers for installation Grid Interactive Rooftop Solar PV Plants as home loan/ home improvement loan. In turn the Department of Financial Services, Government of India has issued advisory to all PSBs for this purpose. So far, nine PSBs namely Allahabad Bank, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Dena Bank, Indian Bank, Indian Overseas Bank, Punjab National Bank, State Bank of India and Syndicate Bank, have given instructions to extend loan for

1.00MWp Grid Connected Rooftop SPV Power Plant at Punjab Engineering College at Sector 12, Chandigarh

Grid Interactive Rooftop Solar PV Plants as home loan/ home improvement loan. The Ministry has also empaneled 89 nos. of Channel Partners under this programme.

4.52 The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has also notified the “Installation and Operation of Meters” guidelines vide its amendment regulation in 3rd December 2014.

4.53 Under National Clean Energy Funds projects with aggregate capacity of 310.10 MWp are under implementation (Solar Energy Corporation of India: 149.6 MWp, State Nodal Agencies: 54 MWp, Ministry of Railways: 2.5 MWp and other Public Sector Undertakings: 104 MWp). In addition MNRE has sanctioned the aggregate capacity of 48.33 MWp to various State Nodal Agencies under the Grid-Interactive Rooftop and Small SPV Power Plants Programme. So far 40.439 MWp equivalent projects have been completed. Rests of these projects are in various stages of installation. The state wise distribution of all sanctioned projects is given in the Table 4.5.

Table 4.5: State Wise Distribution of Grid Connected SPV Rooftop Projects
Status of Grid Connected SPV Rooftop Projects Sanctioned to States/UTs/SECI/PSUs
and Other Government Agencies

Sr.
No
State/UTs
Total Sanctioned (MWp)
Under MNRE/NCEF/SECI / Through their own esources*
1

Andhra Pradesh

15

2.37

2

Bihar

1

0.00

3

Chhattisgarh

7.05

0.80

4

Chandigarh

8.56

4.46

5

Delhi

12

3.07

6

Gujarat

7.75

9.74

7

Goa

2

0.00

8

Jharkhand

2

0.00

9

Haryana

9

1.13

10

Kerala

6.28

0.00

11

Karnataka

5

1.50

12

Madhya Pradesh

6.25

0.10

13

Maharashtra

7

0.67

14

Odisha

5

0.86

15

Punjab

7

7.52

16

Rajasthan

10.25

0.30

17

Tamil Nadu

21.74

4.40

18

Tripura

1

0.00

19

Telangana

4

0.00

20

Uttarakhand

7

1.8

21

Uttar Pradesh

11.5

1.08

West Bengal

4

0.63

23

Ministry of Railways

2.5

0.00

24

Allocation to Multi Government Agency (MGA)**

94.786

0.00

25

Pending Allocation by SECI & MGA under NCEF

100.76

0.00

 

Sub Total[A]

358.426

40.44

Note: To Table 4.5 * own resources – 7.52 Dera Beas, Punjab & 1.80 MWp in IIT Roorkee
**Allocation to Multi Government Agency: AAI (7.1MWp), CCIL (0.10MWp), DMRC (20MWp), IOCL (5MWp), NACL (5MWp), NDMC (5MWp), Instrumentation Limited (0.5MWp), HHECIL (0.05MWp), KSEB (1.536MWp), Ministry of Railways (50 MWp), BEL (0.5 MWp)

Pilot-cum-Demonstration Project For Development of Grid Connected Solar Pv Power Plants on Canal Banks and Canal Tops.

4.54 The Ministry accorded administrative approval for the scheme on 5th December 2014 with a target of 100 MW Grid Connected Solar PV Power Plants on Canal Banks and Canal Tops (50 MW on Canal Tops and 50 MW on Canal Banks).

4.55 Implementation Arrangements

  1. Applicability: All the States and Union Territories having Canal network will be eligible for benefits under the scheme. However, the Scheme may be availed by only those States which have either fulfilled their Solar RPOs or commit to do so within a given time frame.

  2. Eligibility: State Power Generation Companies/ State Government Utilities/ any other State Government Organization/ PSUs/ GoI PSUs or GoI organisations, provided that they are operating in power sector or own canal systems, i.e. are into irrigation. Proposals from States in Project mode will also be acceptable on completion during 2014-15 or later.

  3. Implementation agency: The solar PV power plants will be developed by the State Power Generation Companies/ State Government Utilities/ any other State Government Organization/ PSUs/ GoI PSUs or GoI organizations, provided that they are operating in power sector or own canal systems, i.e. are into irrigation.

  4. Scheme Manager: The Scheme manager on behalf of MNRE would be Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) under the MNRE. SECI will handle funds to be made available under the scheme on behalf of GoI, for which they will be provided service charge of 1% of the funds handled/ routed through them.

  5. Mode of Operation of Scheme: The solar PV power plants will be developed by the State Power Generation Companies/ State Government Utilities/ any other State Government Organization/ PSUs/ GoI PSUs or GoI organizations, provided that they are operating in power sector or own canal systems, i.e. are into irrigation. The Scheme manager on behalf of MNRE would be Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) under the MNRE. The Implementing Agency will submit the application / proposal for setting up Grid-connected Solar PV Power Plants on Canal Banks/ Canal Tops to MNRE. MNRE/SECI will analyze/ scrutinize the application/ proposal and if found appropriate, MNRE will sanction the project, including the ones in project mode made during 2014-15. Thereafter, SECI shall release the capital subsidy of upto Rs.3 cr./MW for Canal Top SPV projects and Rs.1.5 cr/MW for Canal Bank SPV Projects.

4.56 Central Financial Assistance

  • Rs.3 crore/MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower, for Canal Top SPV projects and Rs. 1.5 crore/MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower, for Canal Bank SPV projects.
  • CFA of upto Rs.225 crore for 100 MW (50 MW on Canal Tops and 50 MW on Canal Banks) to be disbursed over a period of maximum 2 years post sanctioning of the plants as under:

10 MW Canal Top Solar Power Plant, Vadodara, Gujarat

- upto 40% on sanctioning of the projects. -

- 60% on successful commissioning of the projects.

  • Service charge to SECI @1%: Rs.2.25 crore.

Projects which have received in-principle approval from MNRE

Sl.
No.
State
Capacity for which
in-principle approval
has been given (MW)
CFA eligible @ up to Rs.3.0 cr./MW for
Canal-Top SPV project & up to Rs.1.5 cr./MW for Canal-Bank SPV project (crore Rs.)
1

Andhra Pradesh

1 MW canal-top 5 MW canal-bank

3.0

7.5

2

Gujarat

10 MW canal-top 15 MW canal-bank

30.0

22.5

3

Karnataka

10 MW canal-top

30.0

4

Kerala

3 MW canal-top

9.0

5

Punjab

20 MW canal-top

60.0

6

Uttarakhand

20 MW canal-bank

30.0

7

Uttar Pradesh

6 MW canel-top

18.0

8

West Bengal

10 MW canal-bank

15.0

Total
50 MW canal-top & 50 MW canal-bank
225.0

Implementation of Scheme for Development of 3000 MW Grid – Connected Solar PV Power Projects under NSM Phase-II, Batch-II, “State Specific Bundling Scheme”

4.57 MNRE through this scheme, proposes to develop solar power projects through developers, procure the solar power and sell this power to State Utilities / DISCOMs along with thermal power from unallocated quota available with Ministry of Power. This programme would be implemented through NVVN (a subsidiary of NTPC) as was

done during Phase-I of the National Solar Mission. Considering the various issues connected with sale of power and wheeling of power, it is proposed to go for State specific tenders.

4.58 The following are the salient features being proposed after discussions with States, developers and other stake holders:

  1. States will identify land where these projects will come up. This could also be clubbed with the solar parks scheme and therefore States could propose to set up projects under bundling scheme in solar parks. Projects can come up within the State in solar park or outside as may be feasible

  2. The States/Distribution companies must agree to buy the solar power.

  3. The tariff of solar will be fixed for 25 years through tariff based bidding which would be within the tariff fixed by the concerned regulators.

  4. This power would be bundled with thermal power. Ratio of bundling for solar power to thermal power will be 2:1 (i.e., 2 MW of solar power would be bundled with 1 MW of thermal power). The bundled power would be made available to DISCOMs through power sale agreement valid for 25 years. The first year bundled tariff is likely to be around Rs.4.50/kWh.

  5. There would also be a provision for extending the PPA beyond 25 years, if there is mutual agreement at that point of time.

  6. Power evacuation would also have to be ensured before the projects get commissioned and therefore CTU/STU will be required to be involved.

  7. NVVN will act as trader and therefore, PPA would be signed with the developers. There would be a payment security mechanism. Power would then be sold to DISCOMs by NVVN through PSA. The programme will therefore operate in only those States who are willing to provide land and purchase the power through their DISCOMs.

OFFGRID SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS

4.59 Under the Off-grid and Decentralized Solar Applications for the year 2014-15, the Ministry provides 30% CFA on the cost of the system ranging from Rs.21/- per watt peak to 120/- depending upon the capacity of the modules and configuration of the solar photovoltaic systems /plants in General Category States in the country.

4.60 The Ministry is also providing CFA on the capital cost limited to Rs.100/- per watt peak for installing home lights and small capacity PV plants (up to 300 Watt peak) for individuals through NABARD/Regional Rural Banks and other Commercial Banks. For balance of the cost, the banks extend credit facility to the beneficiary at usual commercial rates. In case of LED based systems (upto 40W) the CFA is Rs.160/Wp. For systems capacity between 300 Wp and 1 KWp the CFA is Rs.45/Wp (fixed) Regional Rural Banks and Commercial Banks are extending loans to the consumers and directly disbursing subsidy for solar home lighting systems and small Capacity PV systems under the financing of Off-grid Solar Applications Programme in 19 States. Banks have extended loans for 88071 solar lighting systems during the financial year 14-15.

4.61 For installation of stand-alone SPV power plants by Central and State Government Bodies and their establishments in Special Category States, North East States and Islands the Ministry provides subsidy ranging from Rs.72/- to Rs.396/- for off-grid solar PV applications.

4.62 To meet unmet community demand for electricity or in un-electrified rural areas, standalone SPV power plants with battery storage in a micro grid mode/ local distribution network, CFA would be provided in the range of Rs.85 /Wp to Rs.115/Wp of capital subsidy.

4.63 For Solar Water Pumping system, the CFA ranges from Rs.27,630 per Hp to Rs.57,600 per Hp depending upon category and capacity.

4.64 The Ministry has taken up an ambitious programme for installation of 1,00,000 solar water pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water in different States of the country. Under the programme, 54670 Solar pumps will be installed through the State Govt. Agencies and 15330 pumps has been earmarked for community drinking water supply in collaboration with Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. In addition, 30,000 solar pumps will be installed through bank loan for irrigation purpose to individual farmers. The NABARD is the Nodal Agency for this scheme. Under the scheme Banks (Regional Rural Banks, Commercial Banks etc.) extended

100 kWp Offgrid SPV Power Plant at by Carbonaire1 at Chennai, TamilNadu

25kWp Offgrid SPV Power Plant at Jamnagar, Gujarat

the loans at normal interest rates and subsidy component to the beneficiaries.

4.65 A total of 295.87 MWp capacity solar PV off-grid systems/power plants have been sanctioned till Dec. 2014. Some of the major Off-grid Solar PV projects sanctioned during 2014-15 are as follows:

  1. 250 no. of 1 kWp SPV Power Plants for Kinnaur, Lahul & Spiti areas of Himachal Pradesh.
  2. 977 Solar Charging stations to fifteen districts of Odisha.
  3. 70 Micro grid systems in Uttar Pradesh.
  4. Distribution of 10,000 solar lanterns in flood affected areas of Jammu and Kashmir.
  5. 6,000 Solar power packs for individuals in the State of Bihar.
  6. Distribution of 10,000 solar lanterns in cyclone affected areas of Andhra Pradesh.

4.66 During the year, the solar systems having total capacities of 52.77MWp which includes solar lanterns, solar home lights, solar street lights, solar pumps and power plants were installed in various States. Some of the highlights of the completed projects during the financial current year are given below-

  • 24552 solar street lights have been installed at various villages of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Solar power plants having total capacity of 3500 kWp have been installed at various places including industries in Chhattisgarh.

  • 18844 solar street lights have been installed at lohiya villages of Uttar Pradesh.
  • 10000 solar lanterns have been distributed in cyclone affected areas of Andhra Pradesh.
  • A SPV power plant having capacity of 100kWp have been installed at legislative Assembly of Meghalaya.

SOLAR WATER HEATING (SWH) SYSTEMS

4.67 A 100 LPD Solar Water Heating (SWH) System having 2 square meter of collector area, can replace an electric geyser of 2 kW capacity for residential use and may save upto 1,500 units of electricity and upto 1.5 tons of CO2per year depending upon the location of installation.

4.68 The cumulative targets set for installing Solar Collector area under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), are 7 million square meter upto 2013, 15 million square meter upto 2017 and 20 million square meter upto 2022 respectively. Under this, around 7.01 million square meter collector area has been installed by 31/03/2013 against the target of 7 million square meter. Achievements for the year 2014-15 (up to 31/12/2014) stands at 5.29 lakh sq.m collector area. Residential sector is the dominant among others and contributed around 80% to 85% of the total installations.

4.69 The gross potential for solar water heating systems in India has been estimated at 140 million sq. m. of collector area. The year-wise achievements of Solar Water Heating (SWH) Systems across India are given below:

Financial Year

Cumulative Installations (sq.m)

Year wise Installations (sq.m)

2002-2003

7,50,000

1,00,000

2003-2004

9,00,000

1,50,000

2004-2005

11,00,000

2,00,000

2005-2006

15,00,000

4,00,000

2006-2007

19,00,000

4,00,000

2007-2008

23,50,000

4,50,000

2008-2009

29,10,000

5,60,000

2009-2010

35,30,000

6,20,000

 

Launch of JNNSM Phase – I

 

2010-2011

45,10,000

10,00,000

2011-2012

56,10,000

11,00,000

2012-2013

70,10,000

14,00,000

 

Launch of JNNSM Phase – II

 

2013-2014

80,85,500

10,75,500

2014-2015

86,14,500

5,29,000*

* upto 31/12/2014

4.70 MNRE has also initiated and taken positive steps and measures in the direction of applications of Solar Air Driers. Ministry has been working in close association with various Ministries, Institutions and agencies to develop the application of Solar Air Driers in various horticulture and animal husbandry produces. MNRE in cooperation

with Deutsche Gesellschaftfuer Internationale Zusammenarbiet (GIZ), is implementing a project on “Solar Thermal Solution for Space Heating in Ladakh (SolLad)”, in Ladakh region. As part of this project, GIZ had already installed two Pilot Solar Air Heating Systems on Leh District and going to install another 60 such systems, 25 in Leh and 25 in Kargil respectively involving local state agencies and various other stakeholders.

4.71 The benchmark costs of various technologies are given below:

Sl No.
Technology
Benchmark Cost (Rs)/M2
1

Evacuated Tube Collectors

8000

2

Flat plate collectors with liquid as working fluid

100000

3

Flat plate collectors with air as working fluid

8000

4

Solar collectors system for direct heating (Box type Cookers)

12000

5

Concentrators with manual tracking (Dish Type Cookers)

7000

6

Concentrators with single axis tracking, Non Imaging

18000

7

Concentrators with double axis tracking

22000

 

230 m2 solar air heater for Dall processing at Theni, Tamilnadu

4.72 A capital subsidy of 30% of the MNRE benchmark costs (60% for N-E states, Hilly regions) was being providing to the beneficiaries for setting up SWH systems by the MNRE. However, the disbursement of capital subsidy for installation of Solar Water Heating Systems has been discontinued w.e.f. 1st October, 2014, as the market is reached a level to sustain with own technology and competency. All the Channel Partners as well as State Nodal Agencies are now free to continue to supply solar water heating systems at their end without MNRE subsidy. However, MNRE will continue to make publicity to popularise the solar water heaters in the country and also provide technical support.

4.73 MNRE is doing the accreditations for channel partners, throughCredit Rating Agencies and empanelment of ETC manufacturers to facilitate the selling of SWH systems in different parts of the country. Presently there are about 70 accredited channel partners and around 200 ETC Empanelled manufacturers with MNRE. MNRE is also working on five star rating for solar water heaters with Bureau of Energy Efficiency

(BEE). These provisions will be continued so that the customer gets quality product and the support available from MNRE for developing the entrepreneur and companies in this regard is available for further development of the sector.

4.74 BIS standards have been established for Flat Plate Solar Collectors (FPSC) along with appropriate test facilities. There are over 60 BIS approved manufacturers for producing solar water heating systems using FPSC. As a part of testing facilities network, besides MNRE R&D institute National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), there are five Regional Test Centres (RTCs) for certification and development testing at Devi Ahiliya Vishawaviyalaya, Indore; University of Pune, Pune; Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai and; Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat and a newly started Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Sonepat (Haryana).

4.75 Solar water heaters have become popular in Bangalore, Pune and several other cities in Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Efforts are being made to extend the coverage to other States and cities too. Efforts are also being made to promote business models for increasing penetration and scaling up of solar energy and promoting solar water heating systems in various sectors including hotel, hospitals, industries and commercial establishments. Various central government Ministries, such as, Urban Development, Tourism, Defence, Railways, Textiles, Health, Food Processing Industries etc. have been approached for solar adoption of solar water heating as part of the energy infrastructure under their respective sectors.

4.76 Extensive publicity and awareness campaigns are taken up through print and electronic media in a large number of cities in various States where potential for installation of solar water heating systems is high. Seminars, workshops and business meets are organized with different stakeholders to focus on accelerating solar water heater deployment in different sectors and potential cities in the country.

OFF-GRID SOLAR THERMAL PROGRAMME

4.77 In today's climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy. People use energy for many things, but a few general tasks consume most of the energy. These tasks include transportation, heating, cooling, and the generation of electricity. Solar energy can be applied to all four of these tasks with different levels of success.

4.78 Solar thermal is the second largest renewable energy source of energy in the world. India was ranked 4th in the world in terms of new capacity addition during the year 2011. Installed capacity for India stands at 8.63 million sq. m equivalent to 6000 MW (approx.) till 31 December 2014.

4.79 The main objective of the national scheme under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) of India is to promote off-grid applications of solar Thermal systems (solar water/air heating system, solar cooker, solar concentrating system) for meeting the targets set in the Mission. The goal of scheme is to implement the National Programme on “Market Development of Medium and High temperature

concentrated solar technologies (CSTs) in industrial, institutional and commercial establishment for community cooking, process heat and cooling applications”.

4.80 Cooking is a common application of solar energy in India. Solar cooker is a supplemental device for cooking but not a replacement of conventional fuel. It serves well the purpose of domestic cooking during most of the year expect on a few cloudy days. It is a durable and simple device to use and does not scorch/overheat the food. Without any recurring expenses on fuel, it can save up to 3-4 LPG gas cylinders in a year with regular use. A variety of solar cookers are available to suit different requirements. The MNRE has been implementing a programme for promoting the use of solar cooking in the country for over three decades. The programme also supports the development and demonstration of new types of cooking systems. One of the advantages of solar cookers is that these do not pollute the environment, and conserve conventional energy. The scheme was implemented through the state nodal agenciesand channel partners. The Ministry provides financial support to organise promotional activities to increase sale of solar cookers.

4.81 Many types of solar cookers exist, including box and dish type solar cookers, parabolic, paraboloid solar cookers and solar ovens, etc.

Box Type Solar Cooker

4.82 A box type solar cooker used to cook food through solar energy and helps save conventional fuel. The cooker can be conveniently used for the preparation of rice, dal, kadhi, vegetables, meat and fish dishes, snacks, soups, sweets, desserts, sauces, jams pickles biscuits, cakes, puddings etc. it is yet not used for frying purpose or baking chapatis (Indian bread).

4.83 The Cost of a Box Type Solar Cooker varies from Rupees 2500/- to 5000/- depends on its size, make, model, material and features. A normal size of Box cooker is sufficient for family of 4-5 members.

Dish Type Solar Cooker

4.84 Dish Solar cooker is a concentrating type parabolic dish cooker with aperture diameter of 1.4 meter (approximate) and focal length 0.28 meter (approximate). The reflecting material used for fabrication of this cooker is anodized aluminium sheet which has a reflectivity of over 75%. The tracking of the cooker is manual and thus has to be adjusted in 15 to 20 minutes during cooking time. It has a delivering power of about 0.6 kW which can boil 2 to 3 litres of water in 30 minutes.

4.85 The temperature achieved at the bottom of the vessel could be around 250˚C to 400˚C which is sufficient for roasting, frying and boiling. The cooker having a thermal efficiency of around 40% can meet the cooking needs of 10 to 15 people and can be used for one hour after sunrise to one hour before sunset on a clear day.

4.86 Dish solar cookers is being fabricated and promoted in the country by a few manufacturers/suppliers. The cooker can be easily dismantled and assembled by anybody and thus may be nicely packed and transported anywhere in the country. The cooker is user friendly as the place of vessel to be kept for cooking is at a level

which is convenient for the people to use. The cooker could be useful for individuals in rural as well as urban areas and also for small establishments.

Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) Technologies for Community Cooking, Process Heat and Cooling applications

4.87 The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission launched in year 2010 puts emphasis on both centralized grid-connected solar projects and decentralized installation and distribution of solar systems. Apart from grid connected projects, JNNSM ambitiously targets installation of 20 million sq. m. of solar collectors to harness the solar thermal energy in various establishments/industries. Estimates show that nearly 15 million tonnes of fuel oil per year is being consumed by industries alone for process heat below 250˚C, including cooking. Tapping of solar thermal energy to provide heat for all these applications is need of the hour considering the climate change concerns.

4.88 CST systems use mirrors as reflector or lenses with tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. CSTs is used to produce steam and their after the steam can be used to generated electricity or can be used for communities steam cooking, industrial process heating and comfort cooling/heating in building such as a solar air-conditioning application. The quality and levels of Direct Normal Irradiance received in most areas in India favourably support installation of following Concentrating Solar Technologies namely, non-imaging solar concentrators, Scheffler Dish, parabolic Trough, Linear Fresnel Reflectors, Arun Dish and Paraboloid Dish.

4.89 During the financial year 2014-2015, many Concentrating solar systems of have been installed in the country. The ministry continues to provide financial support to all such CSTs based systems @ 30% of the estimated cost of systems/projects.

4.90 The growth of industrial process heat, community cooking and comfort cooling by solar thermal is rising persistently in last few years as can be observed from the following case studies showing examples of systems of different capacities and applications installed during the current financial year.

The cumulative achievement of Box & Dish Type Solar Cooker and CST’s Systems as on December, 2014.

System /
Technology

Achievement in term of No. & sq.m. area

Equivalent Achievement
in MW

Total in No

Total in area sq.m

CSTs

160

45000

18.0 @ 0.4 kW per sq.m.

Box & Dish

689493

195833

39.2 MW @ 0.2 kW per sq.m

Highlights of few CST Projects:

I. Parabolic Trough Collectors System for Metal Phosphating at SKF Technologies (P) Ltd., Mysore (Bearings & Lubricating solution Manufacturers)

Salient Features

4.91 Based on Parabolic Trough Collectors of 6.41m2 each, 40 such collectors have been installed by M/s Thermax Ltd. with a collector area of 256m2 . Approx. 12000 litres of

diesel saved in one year with 32.4 Tons of CO2 abatement. CST system is connected to Diesel Fired boiler generates pressurized hot water at 95°C for heating chemical in a tank through coils for phosphating of metal bearings/ nuts. The system was sanctioned by MNRE in September 2012 and commissioned on January 2013.

II. Pre-heating of feed water by Non-imaging Concentrators at ITC, Ranjangaon, Pune


Salient Features

4.92 Based on Non Imaging Concentrators of 3.41m2 each. 130 such collectors have been installed by M/s Thermax Ltd. with a collector area of 442m2. CST system is connected to Diesel Fired boiler for pre-heating of feed water at 95°C. Steam generated from boiler being used for flavouring and conditioning of tobacco leaves. The project is expected to save around 21,000 litres of fuel oil in a year with 63 Tons of CO2abatement. The system was sanctioned by MNRE in March 2014 and commissioned on May 2014.

III. Generation of pressurised hot water by Parabolic Trough Collectors at Siddharth Surgicals, Valsad

4.93 Based on Parabolic Trough collectors of 28.2 m2 each. Nine such collectors have been installed by M/s Energy Guru (Leverage net Solutions Pvt. Ltd.), Pune with a collector area of 263 m2. The CST system is connected to LPG fired vertical Kier, generating pressurized hot water at 110°C for cleaning & bleaching of cotton in vertical kier. It is a new type of PTC installed using 3 M film on trough & cost effective tracking

arrangement. The project is expected to save approx. 20,000 Kgs of LPG in one year with 46 Tons of CO2 emission. The system was sanctioned by MNRE in March 2014 and commissioned in July 2014.

IV. Process heat by Parabolic Dishes at Synthokem Labs, Hyderabad

Paraboloid Dishes used in Pharmaceutical Unit, Hyderabad

Salient Features

4.94 CST system installed is used for processing of chemical compounds for preparation of medicines. The thermic fluid is heated up to 180°C, which heats up the hot water up to 95°C for heating reactors for the purpose of chemical reactions. Expected to save around 60,000 litres of Diesel in one year with 138 Tons of CO2 abatement. The system was sanctioned by MNRE in March 2014 and commissioned on October 2014.

V. Pressurized hot water and Space Cooling by Parabolic trough Collectors at NPCIL, Kota

Salient Features

4.95 Based on Parabolic Trough Collectors of 6.41 m2 each. 100 such collectors have been installed by M/s Thermax Ltd. with a collector area of 641 m2. CST system installed is used for space cooling purpose and is integrated with electrically operated existing chillers. Pressurized hot water at 180°C and 17 bar is supplied to VAM to generate chilled water at 7°C which further cools air using fan coils. Expected to save around 75,000 units of electricity saved in one year with 50 tons of CO2 abatement. The system was sanctioned by MNRE in February 2013 and commissioned in November 2013.

VI. Neel Metal Products Ltd. Plant, Manesar, Haryana (Scooter parts manufacturers)

Salient Features

4.96 Based on Non Imaging Concentrators of 3.41 sqm each. 180 such collectors have been installed by M/s Thermax Ltd. with a collector area of 612 sqm. CST system is used for heating water up to 95°C, required for components to carry out Degreasing (at 50-60 °C), Phosphating (at 40-50°C), KOD (at 50-60°C) and Hot Water Rinsing (at 40-50°C) as pre-treatment processes before painting. On an average, around 2-3 commercial cylinders per day are recorded as a saving in 2 months of operation after its commissioning in December 2014. The system was sanctioned by MNRE in July 2014.

Solar Thermal Systems under special package for Leh & Kargil Region

4.97 The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has initiated to implement a project entitled “Ladakh Renewable Energy Initiative” to minimize dependence on conventional fuel in Leh & Kargil region on 1st June, 2010. The objective of the project was to meet power / energy requirement through local renewable sources. The project has been extended upto 31st December, 2017. The state-of-the-art of Leh & Kargil Regions as on 31st December 2014:

Sr.
No

System/Device

Target
allocated in
Leh & Kargil
Region

Target
allocated
to
Leh Region

Target
achieved
in Leh
Region
(in nos.)

Target
allocated
to
Kargil
Region

Target
achieved
in
Kargil
Region
(in nos.)

1

Dish Solar Cooker (DSC)

10000

4500

2250

5500

600

2

Steam Cooking System (SCS)

25

15

15

10

----

3

Commercial Green House (CGH)

5500

2500

2500

3000

3000

4

Solar Water Heating System

500

250

250

250

150

5

(SWHS) sq. m. areaz

25000

15000

15558

10000

1098

6

Solar Dryers

1000

500

Nil

500

----

4.98 The methodology is to meet power / energy requirement through small / micro hydel and solar photovoltaic and decentralised photovoltaic power projects / systems and use of solar thermal system for water heating / space heating and cooking requirements. As per requirement and demand of Leh & Kargil Region the project extended to include domestic and commercial green houses. Leh & Kargil has natural advantage of having lots of sunshine in the winter months. Based on this LREDA & KREDA as per MNRE directions introduced the idea of building Improved Green house in the district. This technique is simple because all the required materials, except the polythene sheet and iron angels, are locally available. Improved Green houses are designed to maximise the capture of solar energy during the day while minimizing heat loss at night.

International Funding Projects: Bilateral/ Multilateral support for promotion of CSTs in India.

4.99 UNDP and UNIDO are currently implementing projects (one each) to further boost the promotion of CST in India. The aims and objectives of these projects are given below.

UNDP-GEF project on “Market Development & Promotion of Solar Concentrator based Process Heat Applications in India”

4.100 To boost the use of Concentrating Solar Technologies, the Ministry is implementing a UNDP-GEF supported project on “Market Development & Promotion of Solar Concentrator based Process Heat Applications in India” since April 2012.

4.101 The objective is to promote and commercialize the use of Concentrating Solar Technologies (CSTs) for industrial process heat applications through demonstration and replication projects, besides developing knowledge documents, test standards and test protocols, and removing barriers in promoting these technologies. During 2013-14, a number of activities were undertaken with significant achievements made in the project. A brief on these activities is given below;

  1. Under an assignment on Technology Assessment & Performance Evaluation of CSTs National and International Assessment reports , were prepared which are expected to help MNRE and other policy makers including SNAs to know the existing status on various types of CSTs in promotion both in the country and abroad for the purpose of their use in community cooking, process heat and cooling application in various establishments. It will help them in developing suitable strategies for improving upon the technologies and their large scale promotion in the country. The assignment has also established ‘’on line performance monitoring at 15 identified sites with different CSTs and applications’’. On line data of these installations is available on the computers of MNRE and CSH Project which will help manufacturers and the beneficiaries to improve upon the technologies and their operation and maintenance aspects leading to better heat delivery.

  2. Based on the DPR prepared & finalized through an Expert group under an assignment on Development of Test Standards & Test Protocols, 2 Test set ups (both mobile & immobile) have been established at National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon & University of Pune. The test set ups are expected to help improving performance of CST components & systems, thereby developing confidence among users & improving capabilities of industry. Test facilities at these two institutions are perhaps the State of the Art in Asia. To have an exposure of the test set ups established abroad, an International trip to Germany was also organized for officials of MNRE, UNDP & industry during 1- 6 September, 2014. The trip included visits to DLR, Cologne, Fraunhofer Institute of Solar Energy, Freiburg, Stuttgurt University and few installations and gave a good exposure on the activities being performed by International Institute on testing of CSTs.

  1. To create awareness on CSTs among various groups of stakeholders from industries, institutions & commercial establishments and also help developing the capacity building of manufacturers/ entrepreneurs on various aspects of CSTs, a training cum awareness centre was established at Mount Abu who have gained expertise in area of CSTS especially on Scheffler technology during last 20 years. The Centre is expected to organize 6 awareness programmes and 9 training programmes to help generating proposals on CSTs with an area of around 10,000 sq. m. and trained manpower of 120 people in 3 years of time.

  2. 6 Numbers of Training Manuals (Both Hindi & English) for operation, maintenance & trouble shooting of various types of CSTs based systems, were prepared and uploaded on the website. The Manuals are expected to help beneficiaries of CST based systems in the country to keep systems functional and handle trouble shootings on their own.

  3. An Assignment on Market Development of CST based systems in the Industrial Sector was undertaken which has resulted in developing information packages for 4 selected industries (Automobile, Textile , Food Processing and Chemical) providing mapping of their industrial processes & possible intervention of CSTs. Ready to use financial instrument for industries to understand economic feasibility of CSTs on entering their requirements has also been developed for the benefit of potential beneficiaries.

  4. A quarterly CST magazine ‘Sun Focus’ was started in 2013 with 4 issues published during 2014-15 and circulated around 750 stakeholders. The magazine covers information on latest updates on solar concentrator technologies, current events, case studies - local & global and innovations.

  5. An e-newsletter ‘Insolthermtimes’ is the monthly electronic publication that provides update on project activities, current events and articles on current and upcoming CST sites and it has its own website www. Insolthermtimes.in. 12 Newsletters were published during the year which is being read by around 6,000 Stakeholders all over the World.

  6. A toll free helpline (1800 2 33 44 77) is being operated which offers support to wide range of stakeholders in technical, financial and policy related matters of Solar Energy Technologies including CSTs. The details of calls received during the year may be seen in the figure below which shows how the awareness among people on the use of solar technologies is increasing day by day.

  7. To make people aware of UNDP GEF project activities and showcase some CST installations in the country, a Calendar for the financial 2014-15 was prepared and distributed to around 1000 stakeholders including senior officials of concerned Central Ministries. The response was found to be very good. Exposure trips to showcase installations for potential beneficiaries were also organized through University of Pune.

  8. A dedicated website on CSTs www.cshindia.in was established which provides all all relevant information related to CSTs both in country and abroad and also the activities of UNDP-GEF Project. The Website has been appreciated widely among various stakeholders.

  1. To attract beneficiaries for installation of CST based systems at their places, two advertisements in National Newspaper and 12 in Industrial, Institutional & Commercial magazines were given. More than 20 workshops and 13 training programmes were conducted through consultants, SNAs etc.

  2. All the above efforts resulted in developing a total 41 projects during the year with a concentrator area of 12,617 sq.m Efforts were also made to generate proposal to be implemented in ESCo mode. Through an Expression of Interest invited, a total of 11 organization showed interest which has resulted in identifying 10 such proposals through 3 organizations. 5 of them has been sanctioned in principle.

  3. An assignment on ‘’Development of material and component specifications of 6 standard CSTs’’ was awarded during the year under which 6 booklets on different CSTs will be prepared. The booklets, thus prepared will act as reference document for maintaining quality in the field by manufacturers. Another assignment on ‘’Collection & Compilation of performance data of CST based system through remote monitoring’’ was taken up for the purpose of collecting & compiling data on performance of CST based systems in the field through remote monitoring using Sim based data loggers. The data collected will help MNRE and the Project Management Unit in knowing heat delivery, fuel savings and GHG abatement from installed systems in the field. Assignment on ‘’Organization of Training Programmes/ workshops for the senior officials of banks/FIs’’ was also taken up for the purpose of educating them to provide loans to the manufacturers and beneficiaries of CST based system and convince atleast 4 banks to start providing the loans to various stakeholders.

  4. State wise & sector wise potential assessment of CST based projects in industrial, institutional & commercial sectors is in progress by State Nodal Agencies . 4 states of Tamilnadu (TEDA), Uttar Pradesh (UP NEDA), Odisha (OREDA) and Chhattisgarh (CREDA) already showed interest to whom sanction letters were issued for providing the financial support. The state of Chhattisgarh has already done the survey showing that 119 establishments have potential of installing CST based systems to the extent of 12,360 sq. m. Most of them are in institutional/ religious sectors.

UNIDO-GEF-MNRE Project on “Promoting business models for increasing penetration and scaling up of solar energy”.

4.102 It has been conceived aiming to contribute to the GEF Climate Change Strategic Objective namely, promoting investment in renewable energy (RE) technologies by transforming the market for solar energy for industrial process heat applications in India through investment, market demonstration, development of appropriate financial instruments, development of technical specifications, capacity building and contributions to establish a favourable policy and regulatory environment.

4.103 The overall objective of the project is to develop business models for promoting solar energy based heating/ cooling and, where feasible, tri-generation projects through different concentrating solar thermal technologies in industries and commercial

sectors with a view to replace fossil fuel and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For industrial processes where temperatures above 120°C are required, concentrating solar collectors such as parabolic trough or dish collectors, non-imaging concentrators or a Linear Fresnel system are required to be used. Applications of solar heat at medium and high temperatures would be considered during the project.

4.104 The project strategy will build on the existing favourable framework for solar thermal in India aiming to overcome the continuing barriers. Factors in favour of the project include; the high commitment by the government to the development of its solar thermal industry, and significant interest by the industrial sector to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels. Primary target beneficiaries of the project are energy policy-making and implementing institutions, primarily MNRE, MSME, IREDA, industrial unit owners (end beneficiaries), CST manufacturers, designers, installers, training institutes, energy professionals and service providers and the financial sector.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

4.105 Research and Development is a critical component of the Mission. Mission has endeavored to accelerate ongoing R&D efforts on different aspects of Solar Photovoltaic and Solar thermal technologies, including multi-disciplinary research, with the objective of improving the efficiency, systems performance and reducing the cost. A comprehensive policy for research & development has been put in place to achieve the objectives of cost reduction and efficiency enhancement.

4.106 A National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education at IIT-Bombay was approved in September, 2010. Setting up of this center was included in the Mission Policy document. This Centre is actively engaged in research and education in PV. In April, 2011 the Centre started a new initiative on training of 1,000 teachers from colleges and universities by December 2011, on different aspects of PV technology. A ten-day workshop was carried through 35 remote centres located in various parts of the country. 200 Laboratory kits have been dispatched to different colleges. 438 industry personnel and 1433 academic participant strained. 37 participants have been trained in the Master training program. The base line process for high efficiency (>15%) with conventional industrial process steps (texturisation, junction, ARC, Al BSF and screen printed metallization) has been developed. Process has been optimized for ~ 16 % achieved efficiency on 156 cm2 c-Si Solar cells. Developed a process to get highly conducting transparent conductor based on poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), platinum free and FTO free dye sensitized solar cell and new storage materials (nano-materials) and photo luminescent concentrators. Studying of alternate solar cell structures (MaPbI2Cl and TiO2 based perovskite solar cells). Prototype of 5 kW inverter made and testing is in progress.

4.107 A new initiative includes joint research programme with CSIR laboratories. Two major research projects with National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi and IICT Hyderabad have been approved in 2011-12.

4.108 A megawatt scale National Solar Thermal Power Test and Simulation facility has been set up at Ministry’s Solar Energy Centre (SEC) by IIT Bombay and a consortium of

industries under a project of MNRE. The test facility is aimed at helping designing solar thermal power projects based on technology parameters and climatic conditions of the locations. Trials have been started at the project site. Simulation software current version v 2.0 has been released by IIT-B and allows quasi-steady state simulation of a complete plant or a user defined small subset of complete plant allows quasi-steady state simulation of a complete plant or a user defined small subset of complete plant .

4.109 An R&D-cum-demonstration project for development of Central Receiver Technology for solar thermal power generation has been sanctioned to a Group led by an Indian industry and comprising scientists from USA, Spain and Switzerland. The project aims to design and develop solar tower with an output of 1MW thermal energy.

4.110 Development and demonstration of 1 MW capacity solar thermal power R&D project with 16-hour thermal storage at Mount Abu, with co-funding from German Ministry and Indian industry. The project is first of its kind to provide thermal storage of 16 hours and will be based on fully indigenously developed solar dish technology.

4.111 A project has been sanctioned to develop IIT-Jodhpur as a Centre of Excellence in Solar Thermal Research and Education. Designed and installation of Solar Air Tower Simulator (SATS) facility is completed. It is being extended for inclusion of solar convective furnace. Developed high temperature solar thermal research laboratory and so far they achieved 360oC at a concentration of 420 suns and put target 600oC in the next phase. 1.5 kW air-to-water heat exchanger system is being designed. Work is in progress for PCM based thermal energy storage.

4.112 In order to strengthen the solar resource assessment and to meet the requirement of availability of Solar Radiation data, In Phase- I program, 51 SRRA stations and in Phase- II, 60 SRRA stations and 4 Advanced Measurement Stations are installed at selected locations spread all over the country. This exercise has been coordinated by C-WET, Chennai an autonomous institution of the Ministry. A central server facility for data collection from all these stations has been set up at C-WET. The data so collected will be useful in developing a solar atlas for the country. In addition, all the solar power projects selected under the Mission have also set up radiation monitoring equipment at their project sites. C-WET is also in the process of procuring satellite data which will be useful for development of Solar Atlas, TMY and firming of solar potential of the country.

4.113 A project “Centre for Education in Integrated Nanomaterial-Based Photovoltaic-Storage Devices and Project on Development of an Integrated Panel consisting of Photovoltaic (PV) Cells and Nanostructured Thin Film Supercapacitors (SC) cells (PVSC Panel)” sanctioned to Amrita Center for Nanosciences and Molecular

Medicine, Kochi in 2010 and it has been completed in 2014. The fabrication of DSSC modules showing 3.8% photo conversion efficiency has been initiated and the Storage integrated solar panels made for hand held devices.

4.114 A project “development of improved DS process for mc-Si wafers and their application to Solar Cells” has been sanctioned to SSN College of Engineering, Tamilnadu in January 2015. The goal of the project is to grow multi-crystalline silicon ingots with enhanced efficiency equivalent to monocrystalline wafer using directional solidification process with lower cost and higher yield.

4.115 Innovative project “Experimental grid tied solar PV power generation on a water body” sanctioned to IGNOU Community College in 2014. They have developed lab Scale model, testing equipment, protocol and the standards.

4.116 Design of soft-switching converter with adaptive MPPT Controller and design, development and evaluate a laboratory prototype of an efficient smart control system for domestic roof top PV applications with bidirectional metering provision and increased efficiency of system 90-95% like projects sanctioned to Birla Institution of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, Electrical Research and Development Association, ERDA, Gujarat and Jamia Milia Islamia University, New Delhi have been approved in 2014-15.

4.117 A project “30 kW cross liner-CSP system Test Unit“ sanctioned to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, University Institute of Technology, (RGVP) Bhopal in 2014. Design, Construction and Demonstration of zero energy building for Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 project sanctioned to Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay in 2014-15.

4.118 The list of ongoing research projects is given in Table 4.6.

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1. Overview   2. Introduction 3. Power from Renewables - Grid Interactive
and Off - Grid Renewable Power
4. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission 5. Renewable Energy for Rural Applications 6. Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Application 7. Research, Design, Development and Demonstration in New and Renewable Energy 8. Renewable Energy in North Eastern States 9. Specialized Institutions 10. Support Programmes 11. International Renewable Energy Co-operation 12. Promotion of Official Language - Hindi 13. Result Framework Document (RFD) I Annexure - I : Staff Strength I Annexure - II : Audit Paras