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India's renewable energy installed capacity has grown at an annual rate of 23%, rising from about 3.9 GW in 2002-03 to about 24 GW in January 2012. Wind energy dominates India's renewable energy industry, accounting for 70% of installed capacity (16 GW). It is followed by small hydropower (3.3GW), biomass power (3.0 GW) and solar power (445 MW) that has just started registering its presence.

WIND ENERGY

5.2 Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy technology for generating grid connected power amongst various renewable energy sources. The Ministry's wind power programme covers survey and assessment of wind resources, facilitation of implementation of demonstration and private sector projects through various fiscal and promotional policies. A total capacity of 16,179 MW has been established up to January 2012 in the country. India is now the fifth largest wind power producer in the world, after USA, Germany, Spain and China.

891 MW wind power project at Kutch, Gujarat

Wind Resource Assessment An Potential

5.3 As per the Indian Wind Atlas, the on shore wind power potential has been estimated as 49,130 MW. On a conservative consideration, a fraction of 2% land availability for all states except Himalayan states, Northeastern states and Andaman Nicobar Islands has been assumed for potential estimation. In Himalayan states, Northeastern states and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, it is assumed as 0.5%. However the potential would change as per the real land availability in each state.

5.4 The Wind Resource Assessment (WRA) Programme is an ongoing activity, which is being implemented by the Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), Chennai in association with State Nodal Agencies. WRA has so far covered 31 States and Union Territories involving establishment of about 653 automated wind monitoring stations. 70 wind monitoring stations were under operations as on 31.12.2011. 35 new wind monitoring stations have been commissioned in various States under Ministry's Wind resource Assessment programme during the year 2011-12.

Indian Wind Atlas

5.5 The aim of the Indian Wind Atlas is to establish the meteorological basis for the assessment of wind energy resources all over India. The main objective is to provide appropriate wind data for evaluating the potential of wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine installations. In addition, the Wind Atlas gives some guidelines for the application of the data herein. Indian wind atlas has two parts.

  1. Numerical wind Atlas. i.e. Wind atlas in digital form. (This atlas represents wind climatology) for every 5 km of the country for five different heights. These details give wind characteristics for different geography and at 5 different height levels for every 5 km x 5 km in the country.
  2. Indian Wind Atlas in a book form

5.6 Both these outcomes of Indian Wind Atlas are made available for public at reasonable cost. This can be used for prospecting and finally identifying potential sites for Wind farming. As per the Indian Wind Atlas, installable wind power potential has been estimated at 50 m level.

Research & Development

5.7 The Ministry supports the R&D projects through C-WET for in house R&D projects and also through research institutions, national laboratories, universities and industries. Some of the on-going R&D projects are in the area of power quality issues in grid connected wind farms and identification of remedial measures; Power evacuation studies for grid integrated wind energy conversion system and Development of small wind turbines.

Wind Turbine Testing

5.8 C-WET's Wind Turbine Test Station (WTTS) near Kayathar in Tamil Nadu was established with the technical assistance of RISO National Laboratory, Denmark under Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) grant and with partial financial assistance and guidance from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India. 2 no. of testing assignment for wind turbines has been signed during the year. Certification as per the requirements of ISO 9001:2008 by DNV, Chennai has been successfully completed.

Standards and Certification

5.9 C-WET has completed the renewal of Provisional Type Certificates of three wind turbine models during the year. The formulation of Indian Standards on wind turbines is under progress, in close co-ordination with Bureau of Indian standards.

Deployment

5.10 A wind power capacity of 1922 MW has been added during 2011-12 up to December, 2011 taking the cumulative installed capacity to 16078 MW mainly in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka and Rajasthan. The State-wise installed capacity as on 31.12.2011 is given in Table-5.1 Based on the reports received in the Ministry, the generation from wind power projects during the year was around 19 billion units. The cumulative generation from wind power projects in the country crossed 115 billion units of energy upto November, 2011. Wind electric generators of unit sizes between 225 kW and 2.50 MW have been deployed across the country.

Table-5.1
State-Wise Wind Power Installed Capacity (MW)
(Up To 31.12.2011
)

Technology Development and Manufacturing Base:

5.11 Wind turbines are being manufactured by 18 manufacturers in the country with 42 models ranging from unit size from 250 – 2500 KW, mainly through joint ventures or under licensed production agreements. Around 12 new models were introduced during the year. A few foreign companies have also set up their subsidiaries in India, while some companies are now manufacturing wind turbines without any foreign collaboration. The current annual production capacity of domestic wind turbine industry is in the range of 3500 - 4000 MW. The technology is continuously upgraded, keeping in view global developments in this area.

Promotional Policies:

5.12 A package of incentives which includes fiscal concessions such as 80% accelerated depreciation, concessional custom duty for specific critical components, excise duty exemption, income tax exemption on profits for power generation, etc. are available for wind power projects. The State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala, Punjab, Orissa and West Bengal have announced preferential tariff for purchase of power from wind power projects. State-wise policy for wind power projects is given in Table-5.2 Many States have also announced renewable energy purchase obligations, which catalyses the growth in the wind power generation.

5.13 The Rajasthan State Electricity Regulatory Commission (RERC) and Maharashtra State Electricity Regulatory Commission (MERC) issued the modified tariff rates during the year. Odisha announced policies for wind sector. Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan revised their RPO during the year.

812 MW wind power project at Dhule, Maharashtra

 

5.14 The Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) issued during the year the new Guidelines for the tariff determination for all the renewable energy sources including wind energy. This will give further impetus to the development of the sector on its adoption by the state regulators as the new guidelines suggest very attractive tariff rates for renewables.

 

123 MW wind power project at Theni, Tamilnadu

50MW Wind Farm in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan

Generation Based Incentives (GBI)

5.15 In order to enhance the investor base in for of Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and Foreign Direct Investment, who are not able to absorb the accelerated depreciation benefit, Ministry announced a new scheme on Generation Based Incentive for wind power projects. Both the incentives of accelerated depreciation and GBI are available though in a mutually exclusive manner till the end of 11th plan period. Under the scheme, an incentive of 0.50 per unit of electricity fed into the grid by wind power projects will be provided over and above the tariff given by the state utilities. The GBI will have an overall cap of 62 lakh per MW to be availed in a period not less than four years and maximum period of 10 years has been proposed. The scheme is being implemented by the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), a financial institution under the administrative control of MNRE. The existing system followed by various state utilities for data collection of electricity generation for the purpose of disbursal of tariff are being followed as the basis for disbursal of GBI. Investors are required to furnish documentary proof to this effect that no accelerated depreciation has been availed. During the year, response to the scheme has improved as compared to last year. A wind power projects of around 700 MW got registered with IREDA under the scheme during the year.

BIOMASS POWER PROGRAMME

5.16 The Biomass Power Programme is implemented with the objective of harnessing the potential for grid quality power from biomass resources through various conversion technologies. Biomass materials used for power generation include bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, coconut shells, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, coffee waste, jute wastes, groundnut shells, saw dust etc. The potential of biomass power could be increased substantially if linked with dedicated plantations on forest and non-forest degraded lands. The benefits from biomass includes widely available resources all over the country, generate direct and indirect income for the rural communities, generate employment in rural areas and net positive environmental benefits due to reduction of local pollution from field burning and methane emission from decay of surplus biomass. The constraints are competitive uses of biomass as cattle feed and partly used by process and power industries leading to unavailability or rise in the cost of fuel for biomass power plant.

Panaromic View Power Plant

Fuel Collection Center Stacks

Main Belt Conveyor –Fuel Yard to Boiler

Water Treatment Plant

12MW Biomass Power Plant at Ghanour, Punjab

5.17 Biomass system provides the flexibility to generate power on a distributed basis and enables rapid capacity addition with short lead times. Wide range of technology choices exists for development of KW ranges gasification based system to both small (1-2 MW) and large scale (5-12 MW) combustion based systems. Industrial wastes can also be effectively used for power generation based on gasification, combustion and bio-methanation technologies. Biomass systems can also be used for combined heat and power (CHP) systems in rural areas providing for power as well as cooling and cogeneration systems in the small and medium industries.

Biomass Resource Potential:

5.18 Biomass resources are abundantly available in the entire country. Studies sponsored by the Ministry has estimated that about 18000 MW of power can be generated from agro-residues covering agricultural and forestry residues excluding energy plantation in waste land and bagasse available in sugar mills. The potential of power generation from biomass can be enhanced by improving the harvesting efficiency of agro-residues, introduction of improved models of cooking stoves and developing policy framework for energy plantations. It is possible to generate about 5000 MW power from raising dedicated plantations on about 2 million. hectares forest and non-forest degraded lands.

Progress

5.19 During the year i.e. April, 2011 to December 2011, biomass power and cogeneration capacity addition of 121 MW has been achieved in the

States of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Orissa against a target of 150 MW and as per trends it is likely that the targeted capacity would be achieved during the year. The cumulative biomass power generation capacity has reached to about 1118 MW.

5.20 The States of Gujarat, Punjab, Maharashtra and U.P. has taken a lead for installation of biomass power projects. In Gujarat, two biomass power projects based on cotton stalks, juliflora have been commissioned and two biomass power projects are under implementation and expected to be commissioned by March, 2012. In Punjab, a 12 MW rice straw based power project has been commissioned in Patiala district. The initial teething problem has been overcome. Based on the outcome, some more rice straw based power projects have been planned in the district of Patiala and Ropar in Punjab. Two biomass power projects based on rice straw of capacity 6 MW each in the district of Hoshiarpur and Jallandhar are under implementation and expected to be commissioned by March, 2012. In Maharashtra, three biomass power projects based on groundnut shells, cotton stalk, corn cob etc. with aggregate capacity of 35 MW are under implementation and expected to be commissioned by March, 2012.

5.21 The development of biomass based power generation projects is dependent on the availability of resource (biomass) and development status of biomass logistics and conversion. Market for some biomass like rice husk has matured and presently almost the entire quantity is consumed in industry and power plants. On the other hand, technology for straw and stalks is at the initial stage of development. Hence states like Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, where straw is the major resource are yet to see any major development.

BAGASSE COGENERATION PROGRAMME



5.22 One of the success stories of modern India is the bagasse based Cogeneration in the sugar mills. A Task Force appointed by the Ministry in 1993, estimated that if all the sugar mills were to adopt technically and economically optimum levels of cogeneration for extracting power from the bagasse produced by them, an additional around 3500 MW could be generated. Based on present capacity of sugar mills, higher pressure/ temperature configuration (87 kg./cm2 and 5150C and 105 kg./cm2 and 5200C), the potential has been revalidated to 5000 MW of surplus power.

Bagasse Cogeneration in Private Sector Sugar Mills

5.23 The initial bagasse cogeneration with 45 kg/sq.cm./440C steam pressures were increased to 65 kg/sq.cm/4850C based on a demonstration programme initiated by the Ministry during 1994. The industry has improvised these plant designs to increase the cycle parameters to 87 kg./cm2 and 5150C by 2004. Adopting these higher steam parameters resulted in additional power generation of about 5% over the 65 kg/sq.cm and 4850C cycle for the same quantum of fuel. After the commissioning of almost 35 such projects located in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, higher parameters of 105 kg./cm2 and 5200C were adopted which gave additional power generation of about 6%.

5.24 There are more than dozen plants in operation with these higher configuration exporting over 120 MW power to the grid in the States of Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. About 20 plants are under implementation in the States of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Investment in high efficiency cogeneration technology can significantly improve viability of the sugar mills. The capacity addition during 2011-12 upto December, 2011 is 231 MW in the States of Maharashtra, Punjab, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, taking the cumulative cogeneration capacity in the country to 1932 MW from 117 projects.

Country's First 110 ATA/535OC & 180 TPH Capacity Co-Generation Project on Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) Basis

An important milestone reached during the year was the commissioning of the 36 MW Co-generation power project set up by M/s Urjankur Shree Datta Power Company Ltd. (USDPCL), at Shirol Taluka, Kolhapur District, Maharashtra. The project is the first of its kind for a sugar mill being implemented on Build Own Operate and Transfer (BOOT) basis along with modernisation of sugar mill. A high pressure boiler of 110 ata./535 deg C has been installed, which ensures high energy efficiency & better utilization of bagasse resulting in more steam and hence more electricity.

USDPCL has been promoted by Urjankur Nidhi, a dedicated private equity fund set up to finance the development of non-conventional energy projects in the State of Maharashtra. The Fund is an initiative of the Government of Maharashtra (GoM) through the Maharashtra Energy Development Agency. Of the total equity requirement of USDPCL, the Urjankur Nidhi Fund holds 66.67%. The balance 33.33% is contributed by ILFS Renewable Energy limited
In the BOOT model, risk is borne by developer, who brings in required skills, equity and fund raising capabilities. The cogeneration project will be operated for specific period varying from 12-15 years on commissioning and transferred back to the cooperative sugar mills as per mutually agreed terms and conditions.

33 MW Bagasse Cogeneration project based on Boot Model at Kolhapur, Maharashtra.

The project envisages generation of power and steam to meet the captive requirement of the Sugar Factory and exports of about 22.00 MW of surplus power during season and 33.00 MW during of-season. The project uses bagasse generated from the crushing operations of the sugar factory as fuel during season, and stored bagasse, cane trash etc. during off-season. The cost of the co-generation project is 228.28 crore. A consortium of three Nationalized Banks have extended a term loan of 162.00 Crore and MNRE has sanctioned a capital subsidy of 8.00 Crore. The technology used is indigenours. High pressure boiler and turbine has been supplied by M/s. Isjeck John Thompson and M/s. Siemens Ltd.
The project was commissioned is August 2011, and has already exported about 28.6 million units to the State grid as on 15.1.2012. A PLF of 80% has been achieved in first three months of commercial operation. The project has generated direct and indirect employment opportunities to about 100 persons and has also contributed to economic development of the region.

Bagasse Cogeneration in Cooperative Sector Sugar Mills

5.25 Due to barriers such as inability to raise equity and debt, delays in decision making and high risk / high investment proposals, cooperative sugar mills are unable to implement high efficiency cogeneration power plants for optimum power export. The ministry has made focused efforts in this difficult sector. These include provision of higher quantum of capital grants for Co-operative sector, capacity building initiatives, promotion of BOOT model and continuous follow up with Co-operative / Public sector sugar mills and stakeholders. These efforts have provided excellent results. During the year, seven cooperative sugar mills in Maharashtra with aggregate surplus power generating capacity of

about 80 MW with pressure configuration varying from 45 to 110 kg/sq.cm have been provided financial assistance by the Ministry. Bagasse cogeneration project in six cooperative sugar mills of Maharashtra aggregating to surplus power generating capacity of about 60 MW supported by the Ministry last year have been successfully commissioned.

10 MW Biomass based power plant in Junagarh, Gujarat

 

5.26 The ministry has initiated last year, a new scheme on Build, Own, Operate, Transfer (BOOT) model cogeneration project in cooperative/public sector sugar mills. Two BOOT model cogeneration projects in cooperative sugar mills of Maharashtra with project configuration of 110 kg/sq.cm. pressure and 540 deg. C temperature with aggregate capacity 80 MW (45 MW export during season) have been provided financial assistance. Out of this, one BOOT model cogeneration project has been commissioned during the year and is exporting 22 MW power to the grid. The sugar factory modernization carried out by the BOOT developer has resulted in energy saving and better efficiency with steam to cane ratio of 36%. The second BOOT model cogeneration project is under advanced stages of implementation and expected to be commissioned by February/March, 2012. The ministry has also supported BOOT model cogeneration projects in 12 cooperative/public sector sugar mills in Tamil Nadu along with sugar factory modernizations having project configuration of 110 kg/sq.cm and 87 kg/sq.cm. The total installed capacity of all these projects cumulates to 183 MW (123 MW export during season). All these projects are under advanced stages of implementation and expected to be commissioned by August, 2012.

5.27 Ministry has also initiated last year, a new scheme for providing Central Financial Assistance for boiler up-gradation of cogeneration project in cooperative sugar mills. Three cooperative sugar mills in Maharashtra with aggregate capacity of 36 MW (20 MW export during season) were provided financial assistance. These projects are expected to be commissioned by March, 2012.

Policies and Fiscal Incentives

5.28 The promotion of biomass-based power generation in the country is encouraged through conducive policy at the State and Central levels. Based on the information available 17 states have policies for development of biomass power while one state i.e. Rajasthan has an exclusive policy for promotion of biomass power announced in 2010 and continued till date. A package of fiscal concessions such as accelerated depreciation, concessional custom duty, excise duty exemption, income tax exemption on projects for power generation for 10 years and electricity duty exemption etc. are available to biomass power projects. The tariff announced by Regulatory Commission of different states for Biomass Power /Cogeneration is given in Table-5.3

New Policy Initiatives

5.29 The major policy initiatives proposed includes support to biomass power producers on revision of current tariff, introduction of variable tariff component through weighted average of the cost of biomass resource used in the State, removal of control period, formulation of exclusive state biomass policy to promote the viability and growth of this sector. In the medium term such a policy could pave the way for promotion of dedicated energy plantations through appropriate waste land development programs in each district/taluk based on a suitable public-private partnership model or contract farming. Emphasis will also be laid on development of fuel value chain business model through fuel management companies and

TABLE-5.3
Tariff Announced By Regulatory Commissions For Biomass Power & Co-Generation Projects In Different States

For latest updates kindly contact concerned Regulatory Commissions

biomass depot system for harvesting, transportation, storage and supply of fuel to power plant, introduction of generation based incentive scheme for incentivising efficiency in biomass power projects and encouragement be given for increasing the operating period of bagasse cogeneration project from 180-220 days to 300 plus days.

BIOGAS BASED DISTRIBUTED / GRID
POWER GENERATION PROGRAMME

5.30 The Biogas based Distributed /Grid Power Generation Programme is under implementation since 2005-06. Its main objective is to promote Biogas based Power Generation, especially in the small capacity range (from 3 kW to 250 kW), based on animal wastes and wastes from Forestry, Rural based Industries (Agro / Food processing), Kitchen wastes etc.

5.31 State wise Biogas based Distributed /Grid Power Generation projects sanctioned during the 2005-06 to 2011-12 (till December, 2011), are given in Table -5.4.

Removal of Barriers to Biomass Power Generation in India

5.32 The Ministry is implementing a GOI / MNRE and UNDP / GEF assisted Project on “Removal of Barriers to Biomass Power Generation in India.” The aim of the Project is to accelerate the adoption of environmentally sustainable biomass power technologies by removing the barriers identified, thereby laying the foundation for the large scale commercialization of biomass power through increased access to financing.

5.33 Project has two components – (i) Identification of barriers for large scale deployment of biomass power projects through Technical Assistance (TA) and (ii) Support setting up of Model Investment Projects (MIPs) which would act as the 'Best Practices' for faster replication of biomass power in the country.

Achievements

  • Various studies relating to identification of barriers, resource assessment, evaluation of performance of the existing biomass power plants and review of policy & regulatory framework have been undertaken through technical assistance, which has had a direct impact on the revision of guidelines, policies and on the National Programmes being implemented by the Ministry.
  • Based on outcome of the various studies and experience gained from implementation of the National Programmes on Biomass Power, four

Biogas power generation plant at University of Agriculture Sciences, Bangaluru, Karnataka

Table-5.4
State wise Biogas Based Distributed /Grid Power Generation Projects Sanctioned
During 2005-06 to 2011-12 (till December, 2011),

types of Model investment Projects (MIPs) focusing on removal of barriers related to Technology, Sizing and Sustainability are being taken up for implementation which are - a) Fuel supply linkages in existing Biomass/ Cogeneration Plants b) 2 MW Biomass Combustion Projects for Cogeneration in Small & Medium Enterprises (SME)/Decentralized Distributed Power for Rural Electrification; c) Grid Connected Power Generation Projects based on Gasification of Biomass and d) Grid Connected Power Generation Projects based on Combustion. Out of 12 projects (MIPs) selected under these categories, 3 projects have been commissioned, another 3 are under implementation and the remaining 6 are in process of obtaining various statutory approvals/clearances from respective State Govt's and/or financial closure for term loans.

  • Developed Modified procedure for empanelment of biomass gasifier manufacturers (existing as well as new manufacturers and/or their licensees including the foreign suppliers of the biomass gasifier systems, both for thermal and electrical end use applications); Benchmark norms for material specifications and performance standards for biomass gasifiers.
  • A quarterly magazine 'Bioenergy India' is being published under the project to disseminate information among the project promoters and various other stakeholders. The articles cover theoretical & technical insights, sectoral initiatives, practical stories from the field and any other issue that may be of relevance to the stakeholders in Biomass sector. 3 issues of the

1.2 MW Grid Connected Power Plant Based on Gasification Technology.

To set technological benchmarks and set performance and other operating standards for a megawatt capacity biomass based gasification system, a Model Investment Project of 1.2MW grid-connected power generation system has been installed by M/s Ankur Scientific Energy Technologies Pvt Ltd, at Sankheda Village, near Vadodara, Gujarat under the UNDP –GEF Biomass Power Project. This is the first power project of this size to be commissioned in the country and has been operational since October 2011.

1.2 MW Grid Connected Biomass Power Project at Sankheda, Vadodara, Gujarat

Highlights of the Innovative Features of the System

  • 100% producer gas engines imported from M/s Shendong Power Machinery Company Ltd., China.
  • Development of Entrepreneurs for Secure and Sustained Fuel Supply.
  • A Waste Heat Recovery System for producing chilled water to cool producer gas and hot air for drying of biomass.
  • Utilisation of Charcoal / Bio- Char – with reasonably high calorific value for use as fuel for household cooking by local villagers in the vicinity of the project.
  • Briquetting of the char from the gasifier and filter waste and selling to industries for thermal applications / villagers for smokeless cooking.
  • Electricity generated is being evacuated to the state grid and wheeled to M/s Aditya Birla Insulators through Open Access.
magazine have already been published during the year and 4th issue is under development.
  • A one day stakeholder's consultative workshop on 'Biomass Power – Potential Issues and Challenges' was organized on 27th September 2011 with more than 85 participants from State Governments, State Nodal Agencies, Private Sector, Civil Society and Officers from MNRE. Presentations on various issues pertaining to biomass power were made.

Research, Design and Development of Bio-Energy

5.34 Research, Design and Development activities in biogas, bio-energy were initiated in 2007-08. So far, 18 biogas R&D projects have been sanctioned under this programme. Of these, one project sanctioned to TERI, New Delhi, has been completed; 12 projects are at advanced stage of implementation; and 5 projects sanctioned during current year are at early stage of implementation.

SMALL HYDRO POWER PROGRAMME

5.35 In India, Hydro power projects up to 25 MW capacity are classified as Small Hydro. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been vested with the responsibility of developing Small Hydro Power (SHP) projects. The estimated potential for power generation in the country from small / mini hydel projects is 15,380 MW from 5718 identified sites. Out of this potential, about 50% lies in the States of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh. In the plain region Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Karnataka and Kerala have sizeable potential. Focused attention is given towards these States through close interaction, monitoring of projects and reviewing policy environment to attract private sector investments. The Ministry has been providing Central Financial Assistance to State Governments and private sector to set up small / mini hydro projects. The Ministry is also giving support towards survey and investigation, preparation of DPRs, project monitoring and training through Alternate Hydro Energy Center (AHEC), IIT, Roorkee etc.]

5.36 Small hydel projects normally do not encounter the problems associated with large hydel projects of deforestation and resettlement. The projects have potential to meet power requirements of remote and isolated areas. These factors make small hydel as one of the most attractive renewable source of grid quality power generation. 24 States of the country have policies in place towards private sector participation to set up SHP projects. The Ministry has taken a series of steps to promote development of SHP in a planned manner and improve reliability & quality of the projects. The Ministry is giving special emphasis to promote use of new and efficient designs of water mills for mechanical as well as electricity generation and setting up of micro hydel projects up to 100 KW for remote village electrification. These projects are taken up with the involvement of local organizations such as the Water Mills Associations, cooperative societies, registered NGOs, village energy cooperatives, and State Nodal Agencies.

22.5 MW Bhilanana Small Hydro Power Project in Uttarakhand

5 MW Andhra-II Small Hydro Power Project in Himachal Pradesh 

 

5.37 The total installed capacity of small hydro projects (up to 25 MW), at the end of 10th Plan, was 1975 MW. This was achieved by adding a capacity of 537 MW during 2002-2007. The 11th Plan target for small / mini hydro is 1400 MW with financial allocation of 700 crore. The target for first four years of the 11th Plan was 1050 MW, against which 1066 MW was achieved. The current year target is 350 MW. Year wise target and achievements for the 11th Plan are given in Table-5.5. During the year,

Table-5.5
Small Hydro Target and Achievement During the 11th Plan

SHP projects aggregating 209.50 MW capacity (up to 31.12.2011) have been commissioned both in the commercial and State Sector while projects aggregating to about 150 MW more are expected to be completed by 31 March, 2012. A continuous and steady growth can be seen in the SHP sector. During the 9th Plan a capacity of 269 MW was added. This has increased to 536 MW during the 10th Plan and it is expected that it would reach 1400 MW during the 11th Plan. The average capacity addition of 55 MW per year during the 9th Plan has increased to 280 MW per year during the 11th Plan.

5.38 In cumulative terms, 864 small hydropower projects aggregating to 3,252 MW have been set up in various parts of the country, of which 313 private sector SHP projects with an aggregate capacity of 1586 MW have been set up. In addition, 340 projects of about 997 MW are in various stages of implementation. The Ministry has supported 148 SHP Projects in the Government sector aggregating to 356 MW capacity in 23 States/ UTs. So far, a total of 88 projects aggregating to a capacity of 187 MW have been commissioned and the other projects are at various stages of execution. This apart, the Ministry has supported 37 old projects in the Government sector for their Renovation and Modernization. Table-5.6 provides state-wise details of potential, projects completed and under execution.

5.39 During the year 2011, the Ministry started the process of preparing its 12th Five Year Plan. A separate sub-group for small hydro was constituted with members drawn from all major potential States to draw the 12th Plan and Action Plan for faster exploitation of SHP potential in the country. Separate sub-groups were also constituted to look into the issues of transmission / evacuation infrastructure and environmental aspects including land and forest clearance issues relating to renewable energy based power projects including small hydro projects. The sub-groups have suggested prudent practices to be adopted for faster growth of the sector, reducing the gestation period and ensure increased pace of implementation of the SHP projects. The sub – group has assessed that a capacity addition of about 2100 MW during the 12th Plan period may come from small hydro projects.

6 MW Nera Small Hydro Power Project in Deoighar, Maharashtra

Table – 5.6
State Wise Numbers and Aggregate Capacity of SHP Projects (Up To 25 MW)

20 MW Samal Small Hydro Power Project in Odisha

5.40 A need to reassess the small hydro potential in the country has been felt. The present information available about potential of small hydro in the country is primarily based on the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) study conducted during 1988 to 1997. Further, AHEC has also helped many other States in assessing the SHP potential. For the last 4-5 years, private developers are also identifying sites in States and are termed as self identified sites. There is change in potential at some of the sites after detailed investigation by the private developers. At present, a list of over 5700 sites is available with an estimated potential of about 15,300 MW. AHEC has been helping the Ministry in compiling this information. During the year, the Ministry has set up a working group drawing members from various Central and State Government organizations to review the existing information available on the potential of small hydro and to decide approach and methodology to assess state wise small hydro potential in the country. Two meetings of the group were held during the year.

5.41 The Prime Minister had announced a package of 550 crores to electrify/ illuminate border villages of Arunachal Pradesh. Accordingly, a plan has been made to electrify / illuminate 1483 un-electrified villages of all border districts of Arunachal Pradesh. While 425 villages are being electrified by completing 46 small hydro power projects, balance 1058 villages are being electrified / illuminated from small / micro hydel projects and solar photovoltaic systems. The project is under implementation and out of 1058 villages, 775 villages have been illuminated / electrified. These include, 523 villages, where all households have been provided with solar home lighting systems. Further, work in 107 new micro/ small hydro projects is in progress.

7 MW Uiiankal Small Hydro Power Project In Kerala

5.42 The Ministry has started implementation of a project entitled 'Ladakh Renewable Energy Initiative' to minimize dependence on diesel in the Ladakh region and meet power requirement through local renewable sources. The approach is to meet power requirements through small / micro hydel and solar photovoltaic power projects /systems and use solar thermal systems for water heating / space heating / cooking requirements. The project is being implemented in a time bound mode of three and a half years with a total cost of 473 crore. The project envisages setting up of 30 small/ mini hydel projects with an aggregate capacity of 23.8 MW at a total cost of 266 crore. The work of survey and DPR preparation on all the sites have been completed and implementation of 6 projects started.

5.43 The Ministry is giving special emphasis to

promote use of new designs of water mills for mechanical as well as electricity generation and setting up of micro hydel projects. Special programs are being developed with the States to take up area based approach and involve local organizations such as the Water Mills Associations, cooperative societies, registered NGOs, local bodies, and State Nodal Agencies. The Ministry has sanctioned support for 3747 water mills in 9 states. So far 1973 water mills have been setup. The Ministry has also sanctioned 28 micro hydel projects (up to 100 KW) under the new scheme announced in February, 2009.

5.44 During the year, the Ministry had close interaction with the State Governments, SHP developers and manufacturers of SHP equipment. The Ministry had stepped up its efforts towards close interaction with the States and project-wise monitoring of projects implemented both in public and private sector. Steps necessary for increasing pace of implementation of SHP projects, project-wise monitoring and capacity additions expected during the current year and the 12th Plan were discussed with the States.

5.45 During the year, six training courses were organized by AHEC on design, performance evaluation, testing and other aspects of SHP stations and two training programmes on water mills. An International training course on Small Hydropower - Assessment and Development is being organised by AHEC IIT Roorkee for the developing countries. 31 Standards, manuals and guidelines for various aspects of small hydropower development have been finalized by AHEC through consultative process under the sponsorship of MNRE. A project to set up a small hydro hydraulic turbine R&D laboratory at AHEC with an objective of creating international level facilities for testing, design and R&D in the area of hydraulic turbines, hydro mechanical equipments, control and instrumentation of small hydro electric power plants is under implementation.

Pico Hydro in Karnataka

There has been a significant deployment in setting up of Pico Hydro projects in Karnataka in the last 4 years. From 2007, till date around 400 Pico Hydro projects have been set up and the numbers are increasing steadily. By the March 2012, the number of installations is expected to reach 500. This trend is expected to continue.

Pico hydro systems have significant impact on farmers & villagers to get access to electricity. A number of such installations are in very remote locations with no electricity. Many installations have been done in people living in isolated places near Reserve Forests & National parks where it is not possible to lay transmission lines. In such places, the Pico Hydro Systems have been a boon to these people. Typically in the hilly areas grid power and solar power is unreliable in monsoon and Pico hydro is a convenient solution. 1 KW Pico hydro provides 24 kWh of 220 V, 50 Hz AC power per day and all available equipments can be used. The users have access to urban quality power. Normal equipment in use includes lights, TV, grinder-mixer and household items. Some of the users have also used it for income generation activities.

Chembu village in Coorg District of Karnataka has seen a marked difference due to installations of the Pico hydro systems. The village is surrounded by forests and is typically inhabited by poor farmers who had no access to electricity but had almost perennial streams running through their habitation. Today, around 40 houses in the village have installed these Pico Hydro systems & have access to clean electricity right through the year.

A sustainable eco system has been built for the execution of Pico Hydro Systems in Karnataka. The eco system has been nurtured by the technology providers M/s Prakruti Hydro Labs, Bengaluru, and includes implementers like M/s Nisarga Environmental Technology, Shimogga, M/s Karawali Renewable Energy, Belthangady and M/s Canara Renewable Energy, Shimogga, credit cooperatives which provides the financing to beneficiaries like Sharda Souharda Society & Siri Souharda society and support agency M/s Small Scale Sustainable Infrastructure Development Fund.

The prospective beneficiary applies through the website to KREDL with a registration fee expressing his intent to install a Pico Hydro system in his property. The application gets registered in KREDL. The applicant then goes to any of the implementer who helps him in getting bridge finance for the project & helps in installation of the system. After a set of installation at site, a completion report is sent to KREDL. KREDL Technical personnel visit the site to check the installation & its performance. After satisfying themselves with the working of the system, KREDL processes the request for subsidy release & releases to the end beneficiary.

Taluka Micro-Hydel Project

The Taluka Micro-Hydel Project presents a unique model of community managed power supply system. The basic idea behind the Project was to utilize the free flowing water of the perennial Gattu Gad stream for generating power and to supply continuous electricity to the hamlet Taluka, Tourist Rest House (TRH), Forest Guest House and nearby market on a sustainable basis with a system of community based operation and management.

20 kW Taluka Small Hydro Project in District Uttarakashi, Uttarakhand

The project is located at Taluka Hamlet of village Dhatmeer in Block Mori of District Uttarakash, on the way to 'Har Ki Doon'. It lies in 'Govind Wild Life Sanctuary'. Tourist to these palaces stay at Taluka in Tourist Rest House and Forest Guest House.
The project has been conceived around the 'Community Participation' model. An Urja Energy Committee (UEC) has been constituted and is involved from the very beginning starting from the planning of the project to its commissioning. Training to operators and electricians regarding operation, distribution and safety aspects has been provided. The total power production of the project is 20 KW. The project provides power supply to 75 families through a distribution network of about 2.5 kms.

The project has been design on 68 meter net head and 0.04 cumec discharge. The project has One Pelton Double Nozzle Turbine of 20 KW, Synchronous Generator of 20 KW/0.415KV, 16 meter Feeder cum headrace Channel and Penstock pipe of 180 Meters. Other structure such as Diversion, Desilting Tank, Forebay Tank and Power House etc. have been constructed as per the designed requirement of the project.

For operation and maintenance of the Taluka Micro Hydro Project, local operator has been appointed by the UEC. 100/- per connection are being taken by the UEC as monthly electricity charges. Bill Preparation & Distribution is being done by UEC on monthly basis through the appointed electricians. The collection of electricity bill is being done at project site. The amount such collected is being used for the honorarium to the operator and day to day maintenance charges. UEC is also maintaining various documents such as Day Book, Bill Collection Register, Log Book, Complaint Register, Stock Register and Bank documents etc.

View of Electrification through Taluka Micro Hydel Project


The above facts display that Taluka Micro Hydro Project is working as a self sustained small hydro project.

Key Factors of the success:-

  • Member of User Energy Committee have been selected by villagers based on population.
  • User Energy Committee having legal status to panelize the defaulters.
  • Regular Salary to operators and technicians.
  • Load Management in peak hours.
  • Regular account audits by certified Chartered Accountants.
  • Insurance of the project equipments.

An initiative of the Uttarakhand Renewable Energy Development Agency (UREDA),

5.46 Grid connected Solar Power Generation. Tail-end Grid Connected Solar Power and Solar Thermal Power Programmes have been covered in detail in Chapter 6 on JNNSM.

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE POWER

Small Wind Energy and Hybrid Systems

10kW Wind Solar Hybrid System at Government Ashram School, Murbad, Thane, Maharashtra

5.47 Small wind energy systems including water pumping windmills, aerogenerators and wind-solar hybrid systems have been found to be useful for harnessing wind and solar energy in un-electrified areas or areas having intermittent electric supply. These systems can be set up in rural, semi urban/urban areas having annual average wind speed of about 15 KMPH or above, at 20 m height. The Ministry has been implementing a programme on “Small Wind Energy & Hybrid Systems” to promote the wind solar hybrid system.

5.48 The wind-solar hybrid systems in the uni

 

capacity range of 1-10 kW have been mostly installed in the States/UTs of Maharashtra followed by Goa, West Bengal, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Tripura. These systems are found to be useful for small power requirement for domestic, institutional as well as community applications.

5.49 The programme was modified in view of delays in the implementation of the projects, rationalization of the central financial assistance and improvement in the quality of the systems. The main objective was to make it in market mode with more active involvement of manufacturers and beneficiaries. The manufacturers of the small aerogenerators are getting their machines under the Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET)'s Type testing scheme as per the IEC standards. The testing facilities have been developed at C-WET's test station at Kayathar in Tamilnadu. At present, 5 manufacturing companies having a total of 11 models of small aerogenerators are empanelled.

5.50 Systems of around 800 kW have already been sanctioned and proposals of another total capacity of around 400 kW are in pipeline. Single systems of 50 kW capacity each have been sanctioned for three sites in Maharashtra. An extensive awareness programme was taken up in Tamilnadu in December 2011 and proposals of around 500 kW are expected to be developed.

5.51 In order to introduce use of wind resource maps to develop proposals for wind–solar hybrid systems, an “Orientation/ Introduction Programme” was organized during 23 - 24 September, 2011 at Bhopal for SNAs of all N-E States and Leh-Laddakh.

5.52 1351 water-pumping windmills and an aggregate capacity of 1461 kW of the aero-generators/hybrid systems have been installed under the programme so far. The state-wise details of the wind mills and aero-generators/ hybrid systems installed are given in Table 5.7 The pattern of CFA for installation of aerogenerators/ hybrid systems is given in Table 5.8

8kW Wind Solar Hybrid System at Satyaniketan Sanstha, Rajur, Akola, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra

5.53 Central Financial Assistance @ 2.25 lakh / kW is available for 25 SWES special projects, having capacity in the range of 10 kW on demonstration basis to be taken up in remote locations/districts on the international borders, North-Eastern States including Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir including Leh & Laddakh at various institutions/organizations and defence/para-military establishments in these areas.

 

BIOMASS GASIFIER PROGRAMME

5.54 The Ministry is promoting multifaceted biomass gasifier based power plants for producing electricity using locally available biomass resources in rural areas such as small wood chips, rice husk, arhar stalks, cotton stalks and other agro-

 

Table -5.7
Water Pumping Mills And Aerogenerators/Wind-Solar Hybrid Systems
Installed In States (Up to 31.12.2011)

Table 5.8
Central Financial Assistance (CFA) for Installation of Aero-Generators/Hybrid Systems

residues. The main component of the biomass gasifier programmes are:

  1. Distributed / Off-grid power for Rural Areas
  2. Captive power generation applications in Rice Mills and other industries.
  3. Tail end grid connected power projects up to 2 MW capacities.

5.55 The focus of the programme is to provide unmet demand of electricity for villages for lighting, water pumping and micro-enterprises. In addition, biomass gasifier systems are capable to replace / saves conventional fuels such as coal, diesel, furnace oil etc. used for captive power and thermal applications in rice mills and other industries. Emphasis is also given for setting up of small biomass gasifier and combustion based power plants up to 2 MW capacities connected at the tail end of grid as it provides multiple benefits such as reducing T&D losses, ensuring sustainable supply of biomass, access to electricity in villages etc.

5.56 The prograame envisages implementation of such projects with involvement of Independent Power Producers (IPPs), Energy Service Companies (ESCOs), industries, Co-operative, Panchayats, SHGs, NGOs, manufactures or entrepreneurs, industries, promoters & developers etc.

5.57 Details of Financial Incentives provided under the biomass gasifier programme are given in Table-5.9

5.58 The progress made during 2011-12 under biomass gasifier programmes are briefly stated below:

  1. Rice husk gasifier based 100 village level projects of 32 kWe each have been approved based on sustainable business model by entrepreneurs in villages of East Champaran, West Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Lakhisarai, Aurangabad, Nawada and Nalanda of Bihar. Out of which 46 villages falls under and Left Wing Extremists (LWE) villages of district Aurangabad (33 villages) and Nawada (13 villages) of Bihar. So far 30 such village level projects have been installed and providing unmet demand of electricity in about 75 villages / hamlets / tolas in East Champaran, West Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Lakhisari of Bihar. It is expected that more than 100 villages / hamlets /tolas would be provided electricity during the current financial year.
  2. Installation of 22 rice husk gasifier systems retrofitted with existing diesel generators have been completed in rice mills during the year. In addition, 14 gasifier systems have been deployed in other industries such as

Rice husk gasifier system in village for providing unmet demand of electricity, West Champaran, Bihar

Table-5.9
Financial Incentives Provided Under the Biomass Gasifier Programme

pharmaceutical industry, tea factory, food processing industries etc. for meeting captive power and thermal applications. Besides, 30 rice millers have installed gasifier systems in rice mills in Bihar taking subsidy from the state as per industrial policy of Bihar Government which provides subsidy for setting up of captive power plants in industries in Bihar. So far about 36 biomass gasifier systems have been installed in industries and 30 more systems are under various stages of installations.

Biomass Gasifier at Villange, Banki, Block Bodla, District. Kawardha.

  1. Biomass gasifier based 1.20 MW power plant has been commissioned in Sankheda Taluk, Vadodra, Gujarat. Installation of 6 biomass gasifier and combustion based power projects up to 2 MW capacity each, with cumulative installed capacity of 8.54 MW, connected to the tail end of the grid are under installation in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh. In addition, a 120 kWe gasifier system using pine needle is under installation at Village Chachret, Bering Block, Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand by M/s AVANI, District Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand.

Training of the operators for maintenance

Mobile phones being charged
in villages

Spice grinding mill

Pre-paid meters with auto cut-off installed in villages

Rice husk char comes out as a waste material from gasifier is being
used for Agarawatti making

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1. Overview   2. Introduction 3. Renewable Energy for Rural Applications 4. Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Applications 5. Power from Renewables-Grid Interactive and off-Grid Renewable Power 6. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission 7. Research, Design, Development and Demonstration(RDD&D) in New and Renewable Energy 8. Specialized Institutions 9. Renewable Energy in North Eastern States 10. Support Programmes 11. Promotion of Oficial Language Hindi 12. Special Packages for Arunachal Pradesh and Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir I Annexure I I Annexure II