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Bio-Energy

RD&D Thrust areas & Major activities for 11th Plan

1.         Bio-energy

It is proposed to take up focused RD&D projects in the area of bio-energy resource identification and biomass conversion to energy through combustion, pyrolysation, atmospheric and high pressure gasification, plasma,bio-methanation and Biogas.

(i) Bio-energy Resource

Resource Atlas for Bio-energy covering crop residues, forest residues, MSW, industrial wastes etc.

(ii) Biomass Conversion

a)            Development of MW-scale fluidized bed biomass gasifiers, hot gas clean up system and optimum integration of the system following the principles of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).

b)            Development of poly-generation facilities for the production of liquid fuels, variety of chemicals and hydrogen in addition to power production through IGCC route and establishing the concept of a Bio-refinery.

c)            Raising efficiency of atmospheric gasification to 25-30% along with cooling systems, complete tar decomposition and safe disposal of wastes in commercial production.

d)            Raising system efficiency of small (upto 1 MW) combustion and turbine technologies to 20% plus.

e)            Design and Development of high rate anaerobic co-digestion systems for biogas/ synthetic gas production.

f)              Development of gasifier systems based on charcoal / pyrolysed biomass.

g)            Design and development of systems for their coupling with Stirling engine and turbines.

h)            Development of efficient kilns/ systems for charcoal production/ pyrolysation of biomass

i)              Laying down standards for various bio-energy components, products and systems.

(iii) Bio-energy Utilization

a)            Design and development of engines, Stirling engine and micro-turbine for biogas/ producer gas/ bio-syngas.

b)            Design and development of direct gas fired absorptive chillers, driers, stoves, etc., and improvement in biomass furnaces, boilers etc.

c)            Improved design and development of processes/ de-watering device for drying of digested slurry.

d)            Improving/ upgrading biogas and syngas quality.

e)            Improved design and development of Pelletisation/ Briquetting technology for RDF.

f)              Development of driers for MSW and industrial wastes.

g)            Design and development of equipment for waste segregation.

2.         Bio-Fuels

a)           Develop technology for production of ethanol from sweet sorghum and sugar beet.

b)           Developed technology for  production of ethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials such as rice straw and other agricultural and forestry residues.

c)            Study petrol engine performance using more than 10% blend of ethanol with petrol and undertaking engine modifications  including emission studies with different levels of ethanol blend with petrol.

d)           Study physico-chemical properties of all potential non-edible oils for production of bio-diesel for application in transport, stationary and other applications.

e)           Developing  efficient chemical/catalyst conversion processes.

f)              Development of bio-catalyst and   heterogeneous catalyst for production of bio-diesel.

g)           Alternate use of bio products.

h)            Data generation and production of bio-diesel from all possible feed-stocks.

i)              Response of  different available additives and their dosages on the bio-diesel.

j)              Effect of bio-diesel on  corrosion.

k)            Stability of bio-diesel.

l)              Engine performance and emissions based on different feed-stock based bio-diesels.

m)         Toxicological  studies and test to check adulteration.

n)            Engine  modifications  for using more than 20%  bio-diesel as blend with diesel.

o)           Design and development bio-liquid fuel engines for stationery, portable and transport applications.

p)           Development of second-generation bio-liquid fuels and related applications.

q)           Response of different available additives and their dosages on the bio-diesel.

3.         Bio-Gas

i)    Studies in the field of micro-biology, bio-chemistry and engineering for increasing the biogas yield by at least a factor of two, especially at low and high temperatures;

ii)       Reduction in the capital cost of biogas plants; development of materials and techniques, which are amenable for local level fabrication to reduce the time of installation;

iii)      Diversification of feed stocks to utilise alternate biomass wastes along with cattle dung for setting up household biogas plants;

iv)      Methods for sustaining biogas production during winter months;

v)      Value added products using biogas slurry manure;

vi)      Development of biogas micro turbines and engines;

vii)     Cleaning and bottling of biogas for ease of transportation and usages;

viii)    Local power grids compatible with dual fuel engines and gas engines/turbines;

ix)      Corrosion resistant paints and sealants for biogas plant components;

x)       Portable biogas lantern;

xi)      Incorporation of advanced bio-reactor techniques in institutional biogas plants based on cattle dung for improving efficiency;

xii)     Removal of hydrogen sulphide from biogas produced in Night soil based biogas plants;

xiii)    Additional treatment methods for effluent from Night soil based biogas plants;

xiv)    Field trials, demonstration of new models and products, preparation of standards specifications on design and appliances.

xv)     On-site waste  water treatment for small and medium communities (500-5000 peoples).

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