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Wind

Wind Power Programme

INTRODUCTION

The broad based Wind Power Programme of the Ministry aims to catalyze commercialization of grid interactive wind power.

The wind power development in the country started in early 1990s and in 1994 100% Accelerated Depreciation benefit was introduced for wind turbines. Ministry issued guidelines for healthy and orderly growth of wind power in the country. State also issued conducive policies for generation of power from wind energy. At the end of 9th Five Year Plan (FYP) the cumulative wind power installed capacity was only 1.7 GW, during 10th FYP 5.4 GW capacity was added and during 11th FYP 10.3 GW capacity was added. More than 15 GW wind capacity added during 12th FYP. During 2016-17 the wind power capacity addition was over 5.5 GW which is highest capacity ever achieved in a single year.

The present wind power installed capacity in the country is around 32.5 GW which is approximately 55% of the total renewable installed power generation capacity. The contribution of wind energy in the total renewable generation during 2014-15, 2015-16 and 2016-17 was 55%, 50% and 56% respectively. Now, in terms of wind power installed capacity India is globally placed at 4th position after China, USA and Germany.

Government of India has set an ambitious target of reaching 175 GW of renewable power capacity in the country by 2022 of which 60 GW to come from wind. The country has further set a goal of having 40 percent of its installed electric capacity powered by non-fossil-fuel sources by 2030 and would reduce its “emissions intensity”. Wind energy being clean energy has to play a major role in achieving these goals to meet the challenges of climate change.

In spite of the sharp increase in wind power capacity in the country, only a fraction of the country’s wind potential has been tapped till date. The vast untapped potential of wind power could be harnessed to meet India’s policy goals, addressing energy security challenges and achieving low carbon growth, in a cost effective manner.

In this endeavour, the Ministry has adopted a multidimensional approach, which aims at large-scale commercialization of cost–effective generation of grid-quality wind power. The wind power programme includes comprehensive wind resource assessment programme, research and development; implementation of demonstration projects to create awareness; development of infrastructural capability; capacity to manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of wind turbines and conducive policy formulation.

WIND POTENTIAL

Wind Energy is intermittent and highly site-specific and, therefore, an extensive Wind Resource Assessment Programme is essential for selecting the potential sites.  Therefore, Ministry placed emphasis on Wind Resource Assessment from the beginning and today India has abundant data, collected from over 800 wind monitoring stations installed all over India.

The Wind Resource Assessment Programme is being implemented in the country through the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE), an autonomous institution of the Ministry.

As per recent assessment conducted by NIWE with actual land availability estimation using NRSC Land Use Land Cover (LULC) data, indicates a gross wind power potential of about 302 GW @ 100 m in the country. The online wind atlas is available on the NIWE website niwe.res.in.

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING BASE

The Wind Electric Generator technology has evolved very rapidly in the country.  State-of-the-art technologies are now available in the country for the manufacture of wind turbines.  All the major global players in this field have their presence in the country.  The unit size of machines has gone up to 3.00 MW.  Over 50 different models of wind turbines are being manufactured by more than 20 different companies in India, through (i) joint ventures under licensed production (ii) subsidiaries of foreign companies, and (iii) Indian companies with their own technology.  The current annual production capacity of domestic wind turbines is about 10000 MW.  The focus is to promote a technology suitable for low wind regimes of India.

Wind turbines and wind turbine components are exported to the US, Australia, Europe, Brazil and Asian countries.  Around 70-80% indigenisation has been achieved with strong domestic manufacturing in the wind sector. The cost of Indian wind turbines is one of the lowest in the world.

GUIDELINES FOR SETTINGUP PROJECTS

To bring about healthy and orderly growth of the wind energy sector and to achieve optimum generation of power in the most efficient and cost-effective manner, the Ministry had issued revised guidelines for wind power projects in 1996. These guidelines relate to preparation of Detailed Project Reports (DPR), micro-siting, selection of wind turbine equipment, operation & maintenance, performance evaluation, etc. These guidelines have created awareness in the State Electricity Boards, State Nodal Agencies, manufacturers, developers and investors about planned development and implementation of wind power projects. However, with advancement in the wind turbine technology and requirement to comply various standards and regulations issued by CERC, CEA and other regulatory bodies, it was felt to issue comprehensive guidelines for development of onshore wind power projects in the country. Accordingly, new Guidelines for Development of Onshore Wind Power Projects have been issued on 22 October 2016 incorporating requirement of site feasibility, type and quality certified wind turbines, micrositing criteria, compliance of grid regulations, real time monitoring, online registry and performance reporting, health and safety provisions, decommissioning plan, etc.

PROMOTIONAL POLICIES

The Government promotes wind energy sector in the country through fiscal incentives such as accelerated depreciation, concessional custom duty on certain components of wind electric generators and loan from Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) & other financial institutions.  In addition, 100 percent FDI through automatic route is allowed in the renewable energy sector including wind energy sector.

NEW INITIATIVES

Forecasting and scheduling

Wind power is variable in nature and therefore its large volumes possess challenges for grid security and stability. Many times the wind power generators are backed down/ put off the grid on this account. The issue could be addressed through proper forecasting and scheduling of wind power. The CERC has already notified mechanism for scheduling and forecasting in case of inter-state transmission of solar and wind power. State of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh have also notified F&S regulations. NIWE had undertaken forecasting and scheduling exercise in the State of Tamil Nadu in association with wind industry to provide forecast for the whole state and the results are very encouraging.

Green Energy Corridors

Wind power potential is concentrated in 7-8 wind resource rich states. These windy states may not consume wind power beyond their RPO limit and therefore wind power is to be evacuated from these resource rich states to the off-taker states. This requires strengthening of transmission intra-state as well as inter-state transmission infrastructure. Green Energy Corridors Project that has identified transmission requirement for the renewable power capacity addition during the 12th Plan period is under implementation. The project is at different stages of implementation in States.

Repowering Policy

Most of the wind-turbines installed up to the year 2000 are of capacity below 500 kW and are at sites having high wind energy potential. It is estimated that over 3000 MW capacity installation are from wind turbines of 500 kW or below. In order to optimally utilise the wind energy resources repowering is required. Ministry issued repowering policy in August 2016.

Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy

Solar and wind power being infirm in nature impose certain challenges on grid security and stability. Studies have revealed that solar and winds are almost complementary to each other and hybridization of two technologies would help in minimizing the variability apart from optimally utilizing the infrastructure, including land and transmission system. Accordingly with the objective to provide a framework for promotion of large grid connected wind-solar PV system for optimal and efficient utilization of transmission infrastructure and land, reducing the variability in renewable power generation and thus achieving better grid stability Ministry is working on issuing wind-Solar Hybrid Policy. The goal of the policy is to reach wind-solar hybrid capacity of 10 GW by 2022 and it policy aims to encourage new technologies, methods and way-outs involving combined operation of wind and solar PV plants. The Policy is under process of approval.

Wind Bidding Scheme

To enable Discoms of the non-windy States to fulfil their non-solar RPO obligation, through purchase of wind power at a tariff determined by transparent bidding process, a Scheme for Setting-up of 1000 MW Inter-State Transmission System (ISTS) connected Wind Power Projects was sanctioned by MNRE on 14 June 2016.

The first wind bid (1000 MW) was concluded at record low wind tariff of Rs. 3.46 per kWh of wind energy. The SECI issued Letter of Award (LoA) to five selected bidders on 5 April 2017 and the projects under the Scheme are likely to be commissioned by October 2018.

The wind tariff in India touched lowest level of Rs.2.64 per kWh in the second wind auction (1000 MW) conducted by the Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) on behalf of Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India on 4 October, 2017. These wind projects are to be commissioned within 18 months from the date of issue of Letter of Award by SECI to successful bidders.

Wind bidding guidelines under Section 63 of Electricity Act, 2003 are likely to be issued by the Ministry of Power, which will enable the States to bid for wind power projects.

DEVELOPMENT OF OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY

India has vast coastline of 7,600 km considering the development of offshore wind energy in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), the National Offshore wind energy policy was approved and notified in October 2015. The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been authorized as the Nodal Ministry for use of offshore areas within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the country and the National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) has been authorized as the Nodal Agency for development of offshore wind energy in the country and to carry out allocation of offshore wind energy blocks, coordination and allied functions with related ministries and agencies.

Initial studies carried out by National Institute of Wind Energy indicate offshore wind energy potential in the coasts Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. For assessment of offshore wind power potential NIWE is in the process of installing LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) at an identified offshore site near Gujarat.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF WIND ENERGY

NIWE formerly known as Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), established at Chennai in 1998, is an autonomous institution under MNRE and serves as technical focal point for wind energy technologies. A Wind Turbine Test Station (WTTS) has also been established at Kayathar, Tamil Nadu, with the technical support and partial financial assistance from Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), Denmark.

NIWE is providing its value added services including Wind Resource Assessment, Micro-siting, Due-Diligence Analysis of Wind Power Projects, Feasibility and Preparation of DPR, Wind Turbine Testing, Certification, Evaluation of Certificates, Research and Development with multi-institutional collaboration, preparation of standards, empanelment list of Small Wind Energy Systems (SWES) and their field performance testing, National and International training programmes. NIWE has been implementing on a mission mode Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA) all over the Country by having installed 119 real time networked SRRA monitoring stations (niwe.res.in).

SMALL WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS

Small wind energy systems were being promoted by the Ministry through a scheme on “Small Wind Energy and Hybrid systems (SWES)”, wherein hybrid system consisting of both aero-generator/ small wind turbine and Solar Photovoltaic technologies were being installed. So far, a total of around 3155 kW small wind energy systems have been installed in 23 States/UT. The Scheme was operational till 31.03.2017. An evaluation of the Scheme was undertaken and it is proposed to redesign the Scheme to increase its coverage.

Updated (26/10/2017)

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