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RESEARCH, DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION
(RDD&D) IN NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY

7.1 Research & Development Programme of the Ministry aims at resource assessment, technology development, demonstration and commercialization for promoting the large scale use of new and renewable energy across the country. The Ministry supports Research, Design, Development and Demonstration (RDD&D) to develop new and renewable energy technologies, processes, materials, components, sub-systems, products & services, standards and resource assessment so as to indigenously manufacture new and renewable energy devices and systems. The underlying purpose of RDD&D efforts is to make industry competitive and renewable energy generation supply self-sustainable/profitable and thereby contribute to increase share in total energy mix in the country. The Ministry supports RD&D to various R&D/academic institutions, industries, NGO’s etc. for technology development and demonstration in the field of solar, wind, biogas, biofuel, hydrogen and fuel cells, geothermal, etc. An award scheme has been introduced to encourage young Scientists for innovation. The RD&D efforts are continued with emphasis on efficiency improvement and cost reduction.

Policy and Guidelines

7.2 A comprehensive policy on Research, Design, Development and Demonstration (RDD&D) is in place to support RD&D in new and renewable energy sector, including associating and supporting RD&D earned out by industry for market development. It includes R&D perspective in solar energy envisioned in Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), which envisages India to become a global leader in solar energy by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country in cost effective manner as quickly as possible. The guidelines have special focus on core-support to R&D institutions to strengthen their expertise in the specific area for technology development and deployment and technology validation and demonstration projects in association with industry to facilitate commercialization in the country.

7.3 The RDD&D policy framework of the Ministry provides guidelines for project identification, formulation, monitoring, appraisal, approval and financial support. The RD&D Projects received from R&D/academic institutions industries etc. are evaluated through experts. The qualifying projects are appraised by R&D Project Appraisal Committees. The projects recommended by the committees are sanctioned to prospective implementing agencies. The projects are monitored for successful completion.

Institutional Mechanism

7.4 The Ministry is supporting creating enabling conditions for institutional mechanism for collaboration for faster development and demonstration of technology for commercialization. Centres of Excellences have also been supported for pursuing research in advanced areas for technology development

and training for promotion of R&D in the respective areas. During the period, the Ministry has strengthened its R&D institutions, namely, National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon, National Institute of Bio-Energy (NIBE), Kapurthala and National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE), Chennai with their functions for pursuing RD&D for technology development and demonstration, in addition to testing and certification of solar, bioenergy and wind energy systems, respectively.

National Workshop on Lab Infrastructure

7.5 Ministry of New and Renewable Energy organized a “National Workshop on Lab Infrastructure for Testing, Standardization, Certification and Inspection for Renewable Energy Deployment Programme” on 10th September 2015 at New Delhi. The objective of the Workshop was to discuss the standards and procedures being followed for effective implementation of testing and certification, identifying the gaps to meet the needs of ensuring quality and reliability of the systems/products/components, taking into account technology advancements and local requirements. The workshop was organized in view of the MNRE’s ambitious programme of 175 GW Renewable Energy Deployment Programme. Participants from various test labs associated with testing, standardisation and certification in solar, wind, etc. and SNAs participated in the workshop, apart from participants from BIS, R&D/academic institutions. Key experts invited also participated and contributed to recommendations of the workshop.

7.6 The workshop was inaugurated by Hon’ble Minister of Power, Coal and New and Renewable Energy (IC), Shri Piyush Goyal and was also addressed by Sh. Upendra Tripathy, Secretary, MNRE. In his inaugural address, Hon’ble Minister made strong emphasis that indigenous technology development and standardization is essential for the growth of renewable energy in the country. He emphasised on maintaining consistency in manufacturing and confidence in reliability of these technologies/systems to ensure that systems installed function properly. He stressed on the need for paying more attention on ensuring quality and reliability of renewable energy systems for effective promotion of renewable energy. He further stressed that proper standardization will facilitate financing options for deployment. Hon’ble Minister in his concluding remarks made an announcement that a National Lab Policy is needed to address the testing, standardization and certification to ensure quality and reliability for effective proper of renewable energy in the country.

7.7 The workshop covered all important aspects of testing, standardization, certification and inspection of SPV, solar thermal, wind, biogas and improved biomass cookstove. As follow up to the recommendation of the above workshop, the Ministry constituted a high level National Committee under the Chairmanship of Prof. Vikram Kumar, former Director, National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi and currently Emeritus Professor, Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE), New Delhi and comprising key experts from R&D/academic institutions and test labs to prepare a “National Lab Policy for Renewable Energy Sector” for the country with action plan and infrastructure needed for expanding testing and certification labs with financial implications. The committee is working on the same.

Scheme on Young Scientist Award on New & Renewable Energy

7.8 The MNRE during the year introduced a scheme for “New and Renewable Energy Young Scientist Award” in order to promote excellence in various areas of new and renewable energy. The objective of the scheme is to encourage young scientists to make outstanding achievements in research and development for technology development in new and renewable energy. The contributions should be in form of outstanding research publications in the field followed by patents development and also for their efforts of translating their innovation into prototype development for commercialization.

7.9 The award consists of a citation, a cash prize of Rs. 5,00,000/- (Rupees Five Lakh only) and a plaque. The award will be provided to any scientist working in any R&D academic institution/ industry, scientific departments in India, who has done innovation in the field of new and renewable energy and who is not more than 40 years of age as on the independence day of the year of application. The suitable nominations were invited through advertisement that was given in MNRE’s website and also national and regional dailies with last date for submission 30th December, 2015. Nominations received will be screened by a screening committee under the chairmanship of an eminent scientist.

Space Technology based tools for renewable energy resource assessment

7.10 As follow up to the Cabinet Secretary’s directions in July 2015 and subsequent “National Meet for Promoting Space Technology based Tools and Applications in Governance” held on 07.09.2015 at New Delhi, a meeting of the Working Group on Space Technology for Renewable Resources Assessment (STRERA) constituted by the Ministry was organized at Space Applications Centre (SAC), ISRO, Ahmedabad on 9th November 2015 to discuss and outline the activities related to space technology tools usage in renewable energy sector. The meeting focused on understanding of space technology tools and usage of the same in the functions of MNRE. Space technology tools for solar and wind resource assessment was presented by ISRO Scientists. SAC showed that they had complete package for solar and wind power potential assessment including validation techniques.

7.11 Solar and wind resource assessment being carried out at National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE), Chennai was presented and discussed. A detailed discussion was held on different aspects of renewable energy resource assessment including data on ambient temperature, wind speed and humidity, etc., required in system designing in renewable energy systems/devices. Action needed to utilize the satellite based data available with ISRO for renewable energy resources assessment in the country was also discussed. It was considered that the satellite based data available with ISRO be validated against the ground measured data available with NIWE and also the same compared with the NREL and Vortex data. Activities for collaboration between SAC and NIWE were discussed and finalized. The activities on validation of satellite based wind and solar data against the ground measured data is being pursued by NIWE. MNRE’s institute NIBE at Kapurthala, Punjab is being involved in biomass resource assessment.

Brainstorming Consultations

7.12 RD&D efforts need to be continued to strengthen research groups for taking up advanced research for indigenous technology development and demonstration keeping in view scalability and bankability. With this objective, the Ministry has considered to revise the policy an guidelines for RD&D for developing good project proposals for expanding technology development and demonstration for large scale promotion of new and renewable energy in cost effective manner across the country. The draft policy and guidelines document is under submission for approval.

7.13 In the above perspective, the Ministry organised a “Brainstorming Consultation Meeting” on 5.01.2016 in MNRE Conference Hall to review the RD&D Programme and for discussion and preparing “Action Plan with Thrust Areas for RD&D” for support by MNRE. The meeting was chaired by Secretary, MNRE and attended by key experts in various subjects of new and renewable energy, apart from Group/Divisional Heads handling RD&D programmes in MNRE. The progress of RD&D in solar, biogas, biofuel, wind, hydrogen and fuel cell supported by MNRE was reviewed and discussed in detail for identifying thrust areas for RD&D for support by MNRE. After a detailed discussion, thrust areas for RD&D in new and renewable energy were identified. Proposals for RD&D will be invited in the thrust areas in respective areas.

Technical Regulation for Renewable Energy

7.14 As follow up to a meeting taken by Department of Commerce on 27.11.2015 regarding standardization and adopting technical regulation of products including solar and wind energy systems/components, a meeting was held on 12.02.2016 in MNRE to discuss the need and process of bringing out a technical regulation for solar panels and other major critical components used in SPV programme in order to maintain quality in view of growing market of solar power projects. The meeting was chaired by Ms. Varsha Joshi, Joint Secretary, MNRE and was attended by Dr. O.S. Sastry, DG, NISE, Dr. B.S. Negi, Director (R&D Coord.) and representatives of DIPP, Department of Commerce, BIS, IREDA, SECI, TUV and UL India Pvt. Ltd.

7.15 The steps needed to bring technical regulation for solar panels and other related components were discussed as per norms set by DIPP. It was considered that the process of registration of test labs with BIS may be started for the purpose. It was also felt that in order to stop sub-standard components, quality checks are essential and therefore, random sampling from field is also required for testing the product to ensure quality of products. It was decided to start with four items, namely, PV modules, inverters, batteries and solar pumps. The Ministry has initiated interaction with all concerned for the purpose.

Implementation of RD & D Projects

7.16 Ongoing R&D projects were reviewed for their achievements and for taking steps for furthering R&D efforts for technology development. The progress of Centres of Excellence supported by MNRE was reviewed for taking appropriate actions. A

brief status of achievements under the R&D projects in different areas is described below.

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS

7.17 In the area of SPV, 20 projects have been implemented. These projects have been monitored periodically by Project Monitoring Committees set up by MNRE. A plan for independent validation of the claims made under the projects is under process. In addition, around 60 new project proposals have been received in PV for consideration. All the projects have been sent to the selected panels of experts for evaluation. These projects are also being evaluated at NISE. A new collaborative project proposal with BHEL in the area of high efficiency solar cells has been presented in the recent RDPAC meeting. The qualifying projects will be placed before R&D Project Appraisal Committees for consideration. The achievements made under some of the major on-going projects are summarized below.

7.18 IIT Bombay: i) Development of 5 inch c-Si solar cells with an efficiency of 17.84 % (screen printed contacts) and 16 sq. cm solar cells with Cu plated contacts, ii) demonstration of perovskite sensitized TiO2 Solar Cells with ~8.9% efficiency and perovskite MAPbI3 - xClx based planner bulk hetero-junction devices with ~14% efficiency, iii) development of 500 VA, stand-alone, PV based single phase power generating unit for rural household application (~90% efficiency), 5 kVA grid connected solar inverter (94% efficiency), development of BLDC drive for solar powered water pump (~ 90% efficiency) and drive for induction motor, iv) demonstration of low kerf loss in the range of 50 μm and wafer thickness of 125 μm with EDM process, v) training of manpower on a very large scale involving both in-house as well as external participants and vi) authoring a large number of papers and patent applications. Photographs of (a) 5” X 5” solar cell (b) 500 VA stand-alone inverter and (c) Structure of a semiconductor (perovskite)-sensitized solar cell are shown below.

7.19 IIT Kanpur: Functional PTB7:PC70BM bulk hetero-junction Organic Solar Cell (OSC) devices and sub-modules were fabricated successfully. The champion device efficiency of 8.21% efficiency was achieved on a 0.3 cm2 device. Sub-modules of size 10 cm x 10 cm were also fabricated successfully. The efficiencies of the champion sub-module were 4.62 % (active area) and 3.56% (total area) under

standard illumination condition. The small area devices showed the best T90 shelf life of more than 1000 h. Some commonly used electrical and electronic gadgets such as fans and cell phone could be operated with the sub-modules that were fabricated. Research and development is on-going to address lifetime issues of organic solar cell devices and sub-modules, as well as implementing them on flexible low cost substrates such as paper or plastic.

7.20 I-V plot of the champion solar cell, a typical 10 cm x 10 cm sub-module and result of stability studies on typical OSC sub-module are shown above.

7.21 IICT, Hyderabad/ NCL, Pune: CSIR has initiated design of new efficient materials that includes dyes, semiconducting metal oxides, new redox couples, electrode materials and also introduced new fabrication methods. Using standard materials i.e., Ru(II) polypyridyl complex as sensitizer (N719), nanocrystalline TiO2 as semiconductor, I-/I3- as redox couple in acetonitrile solvent and Pt as counter electrode, an efficiency of 9.4% has been achieved which is re-evaluated at IIT-Bombay with an efficiency of 9.0%. Also, large area device of 6.4 x 7.4 cm2 (active area 62%, i.e. 29 cm2) was fabricated and test at

A 10 kW floating SPV Power Plant designed and commissioned by Arka Renewable College, Kolkata

IIT-Bombay with an efficiency of 8.8%. The same devices re-evaluated at National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE-New Delhi) and found an efficiency of 7% after a couple of weeks.

7.22 Arka Renewable College, Kolkata: The experimental 10 kW Project on Floating PV power plant was successfully designed and commissioned for the first time in the country (picture above). It has been generating power up to satisfaction. Already one year data have been collected and evaluated.

7.23 Since March 2015, around 60 new project proposals have been received in PV for evaluation and further processing. The proposals in PV are divided into two broad groups namely a) PV cells & materials and b) PV systems and applications with almost equal number of proposals belonging to each category. The NISE has re-visited the existing panel of experts and made a few changes as per the need. All the projects have been sent to the selected panels of experts for evaluation. These projects are also being evaluated at NISE. Results of evaluation for around 40 project proposals in PV have already been sent to the Ministry for further processing. Some more evaluation is in the pipeline. Also, a new collaborative project proposal with BHEL in the area of high efficiency solar cells has been presented in the recent RDPAC meeting.

BIOGAS

7.24 In addition to completion of one more project on integrated technology package demonstration on entrepreneurial mode on medium size mixed feed Biogas Fertilizer Plant (BGFP) and two projects on biogas R&D were completed during the year. These projects were titled as under:-

  1. “Integrated technology package demonstration on entrepreneurial mode on medium size mixed feed Biogas Fertilizer Plant (BGFP)” at by Brahma Enterprises at Vill. – Marripallyguda, Gram Panchayat- Edulabad, Mandal- Ghatkesar, Dist. – Rangareddy (Telangana).

  1. “Integrated process development for biogas production from waste water grown algal Biomass (A second generation bio-fuel feedstock) & Testing of Algal Mediated Biogas conditioning” implemented by IIT Delhi.
  2. “Integrated Research, Development and Demonstration of Biogas Generation form Leaves, Fruit hull & De-oiled cake of Jatraopha using CSTR Digester and its purification/ upgradation for utilization in vehicle” at UPES, Dehradun.

7.25 Completion reports of the above two projects received which were considered by the experts and also placed before the Research, Design, Development and Demonstration Sectoral Project Appraisal Committee (RDSPAC) on biogas.

7.26 Two new R&D project proposals under biogas were also considered by the RDSPAC in its meeting, out of two proposals one new R&D project was recommended, titled as “Development of suitable pre-treatment system for paddy straw disintegration for biogas generation leading towards commercialization technology” at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

BIOFUELS

7.27 The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy is primarily involved in the development of National Policy on Bio-Fuels besides research, development and demonstration, strengthening the existing institutional mechanism and overall coordination of development of Biofuels. During the year Ministry organised a meeting of the


Simultaneous saccharification and
fermentation (SSF) of pre-treated paddy
straw for bioethanol production at
SSS-NIRE, Kapurthala.

Biofuel Steering Committee under the chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretary to provide effective guidance and to oversee implementation of the National Policy on Biofuels on a regular and continuing basis.

7.28 The Ministry has been supporting academic and research institutions, industries and non-governmental organization to carry out R&D on production of second generation biofuels. During the year two Research & Development projects supported by the Ministry have been completed. In one project namely “Development of pre-treatment strategies and bioprocess for improved production of cellulolytic enzymes and ethanol from crop by-product” for demonstration of a pilot plant at Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi; under which a process for development of environmentally benign pre-treatment and detoxification strategy from corn cob and rice straw has been developed and cellulolytic enzymes showed 80% saccharification efficiency with recovery of 80 gram/ Litre sugars. The whole process has been scaled up and demonstrated at a scale of 100 L in a 300 L bioreactor at Technology Based Incubator. In second project namely “Process development for bioethanol production from agricultural residues” (Phase-I), development of process for co-fermentation of hexose and pentose sugars of agricultural residues at Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy (SSS-NIRE), Kapurthala. It investigated that utilisation of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuel offers an alternative source of energy and efficient utilisation of both glucose and xylose is necessary for the economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Two yeasts have been isolated and screened which were identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 and Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K3. Both the cultures have a great potential for fermenting both glucose and xylose for the production of bioethanol at a temperature of 45° Centigrade. Further the alkali pre-treatment method using sodium hydroxide was successful in case of paddy straw which aided the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for the production of bioethanol.

7.29 During the year, Ministry implemented and monitored five R&D projects. These are i) Stabilization and up gradation of biomass derived bio-oils over tailored multifunctional catalysts in a dual stage catalytic process to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels and its application studies at The Energy & Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi; ii) Improved production of Biogas and Bio-CNG from Ligno-cellulosic Biomass at DBT-ICT Centre for Energy Biosciences, ICT, Mumbai; iii) Sorghum Stover based Bio-refinery for Fuels and Chemicals at NIIST, Trivandrum; MNNIT, Allahabad, TERI, New Delhi & IICT, Hyderabad; iv) Direct Conversion of Sugarcane Bagasse to auto fuels by Catalytic hydrous pyrolysis in the presence of carbon monoxide at University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun; and v) Enhanced Butanol production from Lignocellulosic Biomass at National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI) Nagpur.

7.30 As Biofuels related R&D activities are being supporting by many Ministries / Departments. Keeping in view, this ministry have identified the thrust areas for taking up the Research, Demonstration, Design and development activities, particularly in second generation technologies of biofuels, which leads to policy

formulation and industrial application and finally integration into energy mix in the country. However, no new R&D project was sanctioned by the Ministry during this year.

HYDROGEN ENERGY AND FUEL CELLS

Hydrogen Energy

7.31 The Ministry has been supporting a broad based Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) Programme on different aspects of hydrogen energy technologies that includes production of hydrogen, its storage and utilisation for stationary, motive and portable power generation applications using internal combustion engine and fuel cells and also for other applications. A total of 29 RD&D projects on hydrogen production, storage, applications in IC engines and fuel cells were under implementation as on 31.12.2015. A brief account of major areas of work in hydrogen energy and fuel cells undertaken during the year is given below:

Hydrogen Production

7.32 The Ministry’s activities on hydrogen production are mainly focussed on development of methods based on renewable energy resources. In this context, RD&D efforts for hydrogen production by way of splitting of water through photo-catalytic method using solar energy directly and also by electrolysis process using electricity generated from photovoltaic system were underway. Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Kolkata and National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), Gwalpahari, Gurgaon were engaged in R&D work on these aspects. In addition, efforts for hydrogen production from the microbial and gasification routes of biomass or biomass based feed stocks were being pursued in the country. One bio-reactor of 10m3 capacity each for hydrogen production was under installation at IIT Kharagpur and Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad. While National Institute of Technology (NIT), Raipur was engaged in biological hydrogen production studies, NIT Cochin was working on hydrogen production through thermo-chemical method. During the year, R&D Centre of Indian Oil Corporation at Faridabad has established a facility for hydrogen refueling that includes a 30 Nm3/hr capacity electrolyser, a buffer storage, a compressor and high pressure storage for 550 bar under a project implemented with partial financial support from the Ministry. The hydrogen refueling facility will be utilized for providing hydrogen to hydrogen fuelled vehicles. IIT Hyderabad was working on a project related to transformation of greenhouse gases into clean fuels by non-thermal plasma method. During the year three projects were concluded. One of them was related to development of photo-catalysts for decomposition of hydrogen sulphide by C-MET, Pune. Other two were related to hydrogen production by reformation of biomass derived glycerol by IICT, Hyderabad and non-thermal plasma reformation of renewable and fossil fuel based liquid and gaseous

30 Nm3/hr capacity electrolyser installed at R&D Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Faridabad

hydrocarbons by Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad. During the year, four new projects concerning hydrogen production have been sanctioned so far. One of them was about maximisation of gaseous energy recovery from organic wastes through bio-hythane process with IIT Kharagpur as project implementing agency. Other three projects were related to photo-catalytic hydrogen production with Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa; SRM University, Chennai; and SOA University, Bhubaneswar as the project implementing institutions. Eleven R&D projects relating to hydrogen production were under different stages of implementation by the project implementing agencies as on 31.12.2015.

Hydrogen Storage

7.33 For hydrogen storage, three commonly used methods are: (a) in gaseous form in high pressure vessels; (b) by liquefaction of hydrogen; and (c) in solid state materials. Hydrogen storage in solid state materials is one of the focus areas of research in the country. While Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi was involved in development of different hydrides, IIT Madras worked on development of hydrogen storage in carbon based materials. The project implemented by IIT Madras was concluded during the year. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur continued its R&D work on development of liquid organic hydrides for hydrogen storage. IIT Guwahati and IIT Hyderabad were also involved in implementation of R&D projects related to hydrogen storage. Two new R&D projects related to hydrogen storage have been sanctioned during the year so far. One of them was on development of design methodology for light weight high pressure hydrogen storage composite cylinder for vehicular applications with Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur

as the project implementing institution and other was related to reversible hydrogen storage in Metal Organic Frameworks (MOF) near ambient temperatures. The Ministry was supporting seven R&D projects on hydrogen storage as on 31.12.2015.

Applications of Hydrogen Energy

7.34 Development of internal combustion engines that can use hydrogen or hydrogen blended gaseous fuel or hydrogen along with liquid fuel has been one of the thrust areas of RD&D programme of the Ministry. With this broad objective, prototypes of hydrogen fuelled three wheelers using hydrogen stored either in metal hydrides or in composite cylinders at high pressure have been developed in the country. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi continued its efforts for developing eight prototypes of improved hydrogen fuelled three wheelers with hydrogen stored in metal hydrides. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) along with Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) and Air Products was engaged in field trials of 15 hydrogen fuelled three wheelers at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. Composite cylinders have been used for on-board storage of hydrogen in these three wheelers. IIT Delhi in association with M&M has also developed two mini buses powered by hydrogen fuelled internal combustion engine. These buses would undergo field trials up to 100,000 km. RD&D efforts for use of hydrogen with diesel in dual fuel mode for powering utility vehicles were continued by M&M and the prototypes were undergoing field trials in the campus of NISE, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon, where a hydrogen production and dispensing facility was established during 2014-15 and which became operational during the year after necessary approvals were received from Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation, Nagpur. A project for use of hydrogen with straight vegetable oil in stationary engine was concluded at University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun. Reduction in NOx in hydrogen fuelled engine is one of the important areas of research. One project on this aspect progressed at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. Another project on development and demonstration of hydrogen fuelled multi-cylinder spark ignition engine generator set for stationary power generation was under implementation at IIT Delhi. Seven RD&D projects relating to applications of hydrogen in engines were under implementation as on 31.12.2015.

Fuel Cells

7.35 The focus of the Fuel Cell Programme of the Ministry is mainly to support RD&D activities on different types of fuel cells namely Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC), Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell (DEFC), Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC). The emphasis of research has been on further improvements in fuel cell related processes, materials, components, sub-systems and fuel cell systems. In total, four R&D projects relating to development of fuel cells and membrane and catalyst for fuel cells

were under implementation as on 31.12.2015. In response to a call issued for submission of proposals for development and demonstration of low temperature and high temperature PEMFC, proposals were received and for evaluation of which a mechanism is proposed to be put in place. Therefore, no new R&D projects for support by the Ministry were considered.

Review of Progress

7.36 The Ministry constituted a Steering Committee on Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells in May, 2012 under the Chairmanship of the then Member (Science), Planning Commission to advise the Ministry and steer the overall activities of Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells in the country. Based on the recommendations of the Steering Committee, five Sub-Committees on different aspects of Hydrogen Energy and Fuel cells were constituted during 2012-13. Meetings of the Steering Committee and the five Sub-Committees were organised during the year. The Steering Committee on Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells is expected to submit its report by the end of March, 2016.

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1. Overview   2. Introduction 3. Power from Renewables - Grid Interactive
and Off - Grid Renewable Power
4. National Solar Mission 5. Renewable Energy for Rural Applications 6. Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Application 7. Research, Design, Development and Demonstration in New and Renewable Energy 8. Renewable Energy in North Eastern States 9. Specialized Institutions 10. Support Programmes 11. International Renewable Energy Co-operation 12. Promotion of Official Language - Hindi I Annexure - I : Staff Strength I Annexure - II : Audit Paras