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RENEWABLE ENERGY
FOR RURAL APPLICATIONS

5.1 The Ministry has been supporting programmes for the deployment of renewable energy systems and devices such as biogas plants, photovoltaic systems, biomass gasifiers, solar cookers and solar thermal systems etc for rural and semi-rural applications. The Ministry has also been implementing remote village electrification programme and village energy security test projects.

5.2 The Ministry has been supporting renewable energy programmes for rural areas of the country by deploying renewable energy systems such as family type biogas plants, solar water heating systems, solar cookers and other solar energy devices. In addition to family type biogas plants, the demonstration of integrated Technology package on Biogas-Fertilizer Plants (BGFP) for generation, purification/ enrichment, bottling and piped distribution of biogas as technology demonstration under RDD&D policy was launched during the year 2009-10 and continued in 2015-16. The objectives of the integrated technology demonstration programme is to demonstrate the biogas fuel applications to meet stationary, motive power, electricity needs including cooking and heating requirements.

NATIONAL BIOGAS AND MANURE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME (NBMMP)

Introduction

5.3 Biogas is produced when biodegradable organic wastes are subject to a process called anaerobic digestion and organic enriched bio-manure is produced simultaneously as byproduct from this process. The anaerobic digestion process is a low carbon generating technology for efficient management of waste and sanitation. Biogas is, thus, a clean gaseous fuel for cooking, heating, generating electricity and also for motive power & operating vehicles. It has the potential for leveraging livelihood development as well as tackling the issues related with health hazard and environmental issues together with in combating the climate change.

5.4 Family Type Biogas Plants mainly for rural and semi-urban households are set up under the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP), the salient objectives as given below-

  1. To provide clean gaseous fuel mainly for cooking, lighting and organic manure to rural and semi-urban households.
  2. To mitigate drudgery of rural women, reduce pressure on forests and accentuate social benefits.
  3. To improve sanitation in villages by linking sanitary toilets with cattle dung based biogas plants.
  4. To provide bio-digested slurry as a source of upgraded organic enriched bio-manure to reduce use of chemical fertilizers.
  5. To meet “lifeline energy” needs for cooking as envisaged in “Integrated Energy Policy” of the Planning Commission, now National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog.

  1. To help in mitigation and combating climate change by preventing emission of Green House Gases (GHGs) such as Carbon Dioxide and Methane into the atmosphere.

5.5 In addition to supplementing the use of LPG and reduces pressure on forests and other conventional fuels like coal and kerosene a household biogas plant is a solution to the problems of small and marginal farmers as biogas plants also provide enriched organic bio-manure in the form of digested slurry with high quantity and quality of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK). Application of organic bio-manure helps not only in sustaining soil health but also providing nutrients for obtaining higher crop yields. The NBMMP is a socially, environment-friendly and eco-programme that not only provides clean cooking fuel to rural/semi-urban households but also provides enriched organic manure for raising farm productivity and maintaining the soil health. The biogas plants are potential source of helping farmers in adopting both conventional and organic farming.

Implementation

5.6 The programme is being implemented since 1981-82 with a view to give due emphasis to organic bio-manure potential of the biogas plant digested slurry, the National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) was renamed as National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) during the year 2002-03. A target for setting up 1.1 lakh family type biogas plants during the year 2015-16 was allocated to State Nodal Departments/ State Nodal Agencies and Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) and Biogas Development and Training Centers (BDTCs). These agencies, also involve their trained/ registered Turn-Key Workers (TKWs) /Rural Energy Technicians (RETs) in implementation. Eight Biogas Development and Training Centers (BDTCs) were continued for providing training and technical support to the State implementing Departments/Agencies during the year 2015-16, in various Universities and Indian Institute of Technologies (IITs) and other Technical Institutions. These BDTCs cater to training needs of their assigned States. Against the annual physical targets of 1.11 lakh plants about 38,301 family type biogas plants are reported to have been set up upto December, 2015 and the annual target is likely to be achieved. The State/ UT-wise details of the achievements cumulative upto 2014-15 and for current year 2015-16 (up to 31.12.2015) are given in Table 5.1.

Components of Central Finance Assistance

5.7 The MNRE provides subsidy and other supports as Central Financial Assistance (CFA) which have been revised and effective since 08.05.2014. The details of the subsidy and other support are given in Table 5.2. In order to maintain the quality of programme implementation, support is also provided for different types of training courses as per details given below-

  1. Users’ Training Course- To raise awareness of users’ about the benefits of biogas plants and how to use the plant efficiently and how to operate & maintain.


Table 5.1 : National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) State-wise Estimated Potential and Cumulative Achievements of Family Type Biogas Plants till 31st March, 2015 and Targets and Achievements during 2015-16 (As on 31.12.2015)

State/Union Territories

Estimated potential(Plants in Nos.)

Cumulative physical achievements as on 31-03-2015 (Plants in Nos.)

Targets and achievements during 2015-16 (Plants in nos.)

Target

Achievements (up to 31.12.2015)*

1

2

3

4

5

Andhra Pradesh

1065000

532311

10200

5380

Arunachal Pradesh

7500

3475

50

0

Assam

307000

114119

7600

4450

Bihar

733000

129826

-

-

Chhattisgarh

400000

51241

4150

648

Delhi

12900

681

-

-

Goa

8000

4109

100

77

Gujarat

554000

430025

3800

711

Haryana

300000

60753

1650

423

Himachal Pradesh

125000

47424

230

89

Jammu & Kashmir

128000

3072

100

0

Jharkhand

100000

7326

100

10

Karnataka

680000

478958

16000

3555

Kerala

150000

144396

4000

1189

Madhya Pradesh

1491000

353502

10700

3042

Maharashtra

897000

871494

14660

6611

Manipur

38000

2128

-

-

Meghalaya

24000

9996

250

0

Mizoram

5000

5020

500

270

Nagaland

6700

7903

300

0

Odisha

605000

265975

5100

596

Punjab

411000

171765

10650

2027

Puducherry

4300

578

-

-

Rajasthan

915000

70139

1050

333

Sikkim

7300

8874

200

130

Tamilnadu

615000

222283

450

102

Telangana

-

9900

9900

5601

Tripura

28000

3368

350

120

Uttar Pradesh

1938000

438817

1750

789

Uttarakhand

83000

18478

960

547

West Bengal

695000

366595

-

-

A&N Islands

2200

137

-

-

Chandigarh

1400

97

-

-

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

2000

169

-

-

KVIC#

-

-

6200

1601

TOTAL :

12339300

4834934

1,11,000

38,301*

*Figures are being firmed-up.

Table 5.2 : Pattern of Central Financial Assistance under the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme, w.e.f. 08.05.2014 for the remaining period of 12th Five Year Plan
Sl.
No.
Particulars of Central Financial Assistance
(CFA) & States / Regions and Categories
Family Type Biogas Plants under NBMMP
(1 to 6 cubic metre capacity per day )
A. Central Subsidy Rates Applicable (In Rs.) 1 Cubic Metre 2- 6 Cubic Metre
1.
NER States, Sikkim (except plain areas of Assam) and including SC and ST Categories of NE Region States.
15,000 17,000
2. Plain areas of Assam. 10,000 11,000
3.
Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Nilgiris of Tamil Nadu, Sadar Kurseong & Kalimpong Sub-Divisions of Darjeeling, Sunderbans (W.B.) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
7,000 11,000
4. Scheduled castes / Scheduled Tribes of all other States except NE Region States including Sikkim 7,000 11,000
5. All Others 5,500 9,000
B. Turn-Key Job Fee including warranty for five years and quality control (in Rs. per plant).
Rs.1500/- per plant for fixed dome Deenbandhu type and floating gasholder KVIC type brick masonry models. Turn Key Job Fee also provided for biogas plants with prefabricated material involving part construction work either for digester or dome. No fee is provided for completely prefabricated / manufactured plants such as Bag type plants with rubberized material or plants made of HDPE / PVC / fabric materials, as and when approved.
C. Additional CFA for toilet linked Biogas Plants (in Rs. per plant).
1,200/-
D. Administrative Charges – for physical target range of biogas plants (in Rs.)
1. 100-3,000
1,00,000^
2. 3,001-7,000
10,50,000^^
3. Above 7,001
24,50,000 *
E. Training support per course (in Rs.)
1. Users Course
3,000
2. Staff Course
10,000
3. Construction-cum Maintenance / Refresher Course
45,000
4.
Turn-key Workers & Management Course for TKWs / RETs / SHGs/ Officials of SND / SNA / Banks / FIs & Companies / Entrepreneurs.
75,000
F. Biogas Development & Training Centres.
As per the pattern of CFA and staff strength / positions conveyed vide Ministry’s sanction letter No. 19-3/2011-BE (Pt.) dated 16th November, 2011 and dated 2nd March, 2012 and annual outlay allocated year-wise.
G.
Support for Communication & Publicity as
per the target range of Biogas Plants (In Rs.)
 
1. Up to 1,000
2,00,000
2. 1,001-10,000
4,00,000
3. More than 10,000
6,00,000

Sl.
No.
Particulars of Central Financial Assistance (CFA) & States / Regions and Categories
Family Type Biogas Plants under NBMMP (1 to 6 cubic metre capacity per day )
H. Support for Repair of Non-functional Plants with the restriction of utilization of upto 5% of the annual outlay of the programme, earmarked for the year for the concerned of SND/SNA/UT.
50% of the applicable central subsidy rate subject to sharing of 50% of the cost of repair by the respective beneficiary. Repair cost estimates for a non-functional biogas plant should not exceed the total subsidy amount applicable as per the size of the biogas plant. The proposal prepared by SNDs/SNAs and KVIC by bunching of such non-functional plants, requires prior approval of the Ministry (MNRE).
Household size Family Type Biogas Plants under NBMMP
^ Extra Rs.400 per plant in excess of 100 biogas plants.
^Extra Rs.350 per plant in excess of 3000 biogas plants.
* Extra Rs.300 per plant in excess of 7,000 biogas plants subject to maximum of Rs.60.00 lakh (Rupees Sixty Lakh).
  1. Staff Training Course- To expose supervisors/Govt. Officials/Bank Officials and other staff to various aspects of biogas technology and its benefits.
  2. Construction-cum-Maintenance Course (CMC)/Refresher Course- In order to create a cadre of trained Biogas Masons and Technicians to make them skilled in the Construction, Construction supervision and Maintenance of approved models of Biogas plants.
  3. Turn-Key Workers Training (TKWT)- To create and maintain the availability of trained biogas Turn-Key Workers/ Rural Biogas Entrepreneurs in rural and semi-urban areas for setting up of biogas plants on Turn-Key basis and providing post-installation free warranty and services for five years.

Progress and Achievements

5.8 During the 12th Plan period, about 3.22 lakh plants have been set up up to 31.12.2015. The average estimated biogas generation capacity of these biogas plants is about 6.46 lakh cubic meter per day. These biogas plants are giving an estimated annual savings of about 70.90 lakh numbers of LPG cylinders equivalent and simultaneously producing about 88.4 lakh tonnes of organic enriched bio-manure per year, which is equivalent to about 31,100 tonnes of Urea per annum. Alternatively the saving by biogas plants installed during the last three years and current year 2015-16 can replace the use of about 4.00 lakh litres of kerosene per day. There would be direct saving of about 8.20 lakh tonnes fuel- wood per annum, and thereby, helping in preventing emission of about 1,615,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide annually.

5.9 Up to December, 2015 with the cumulative total installation of about 48.7 lakh family type biogas plants about 39.58 % of the estimated potential has been harnessed. Cumulative achievements till March, 2015 and target and achievements during 2014-15 under the NBMM Programme are given in Table 1. Installation of 1,11,000 family type biogas plants during the year 2015-16 is likely to result in the estimated annual saving of about 281498 tonnes of fuel wood equivalent and production of about 10700 tonnes of urea equivalent per annum. The digested biogas slurry will be giving 3038625 tonnes of organic manure per year. It is estimated that the construction activities would generate about 33.0 lakh person-days of employment for skilled and unskilled workers in rural and semi

A 2 cu.m biogas plant installed for beneficiary Shir Kamal Pradhan, s/o- Shri hankaLal, Vill. – Rawan, Block- Kasdol, Dist.-BalodaBajar, Chhattisgarh (C.G.)

urban areas during the year 2015-16. The targeted biogas plants for the current year is expected to prevention of an estimated 555,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere annually.

5.10 Beside the above, the rural households particularly women and children are getting benefits in terms of reducing drudgery and saving in their valuable time, otherwise spent in collecting fuel wood from long distances/ forests. The previous independent evaluation study of 11th Five year plan period brought out that about 92% of the beneficiaries expressed their views that on an average there is reduction in wasting hours for the above chores by 3 average hours per day. In other words on an average there is a saving of 3 hours a day for women, and this saving time can be used by them for other livelihood activities.

Monitoring of Programme

5.11 State Nodal Departments/ State Nodal Agencies and KVIC are involved in implementation, maintaining database in hard and soft copies, and performance evaluation/ inspections of the biogas plants are to be done by them on regular basis. The programme implementing State Nodal Departments/ State Nodal Agencies and KVIC etc. are required to upload mandatorily the beneficiary-wise and year-wise lists of biogas plants commissioned during the year, on their official websites including those of other concerned organizations, if involved, in the programme by them.

5.12 In order to ensure that un-commissioned / in-complete plants are not reported for claiming CFA, it is mandatory that all the biogas plants set up during the each

A 2 cu.m Deenbandhu biogas plant, installed for beneficiary, Shri Raghuveer, S/o- Shri Ram Pratap Dhakad at Village- Barkhera, Dist. – Guna, Madhya Pradesh.

quarter are physically verified and a certificate to that effect recorded by the Officers concerned for post verification purpose.

Field Inspections by Biogas Development and Training Centers (BDTCs)

5.13 Biogas Development and Training Centers (BDTCs) being supported under the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) conduct inspections of 1000 biogas plants in a year selected on random basis in the States of their jurisdiction. The reports prepared by BDTCs are useful for the State Nodal Agencies / State Nodal departments, during the inspections and also to plan implementation strategies. Eight BDTCs are working for the programme across the country.

Approved Models of Biogas plants and appliances under the NBMMP

5.14 The capacity of a family type biogas plant may vary from 1 to 10 cubic meters per day. However, the central financial support, is restricted upto 6m3 capacity. Biogas plant of more than 6m3 capacity is not covered for Central Financial Assistance under the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme.The approved Models for getting CFA are:

A. Floating drum KVIC design Biogas Plants

B. Fixed dome Deenbandhu Biogas Plants

C. Prefabricated/partly pre-fabricated model of Biogas Plants

D. Bag type Flexi design model of Biogas Plants

Pre-fabricated models of biogas plants

5.15 The Ministry under the innovative approach approved prefabricated biogas plants by specifying broad design specifications for HDPE/PVC/FRP/RCC material based KVIC floating design type Family Type Biogas Plants during the year 2014-15. The programme could also reach to the remote and difficult locations/regions of the country where transportation of construction material brick, cement, sand etc. for the plants is a difficult task. This action may also contribute in up-scaling the programme and help boost Make in India campaign.


IMPROVED BIOMASS COOKSTOVES

5.16 Unnat Chulha Abhiyan (UCA) Programme which was initiated on 27th June, 2014 for development and deployment of improved biomass cookstoves was continued for the year 2015-16 and targets were allotted to different states/UTs. The UCA programme is being implemented through State Nodal/Implementing Agencies (SNAs), State Departments of Education, State Rural Livelihood Missions (SRLMs), through District Coordinators of Mid-Day Meal Scheme, District Level Officer of Anganwadis, District Coordinators/Officers of Tribal/SC/Backward Class Hostels, similar departmental agencies where cook-stoves could be employed, NGOs/CSOs, manufacturers, business development organizations, etc. are engaged in implementation of renewable energy projects at grassroot level. The field monitoring of cookstoves carried through “Third Party Monitoring System” which could be a R&D institution or a consortia of R&D/ academic institution’s professionals and identified by MNRE. Eventually web-based monitoring system will be developed where mobile camera based photos of chulhas in use will be uploaded. The overall progress will be reviewed by the Core Group on Biomass Cookstove of MNRE.

5.17 Four Biomass Cookstove Test Centres continued for performance testing and certification of biomass cookstoves industry from different zones of the country continued during the year 2015-16. The Test centres have test facilities with advanced equipment at par with international level. These Test centres have been set up in Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT), CSIR- Lab, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agricultural and Technology (MPUAT), Udaipur and Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio-Energy (SSS-NIBE), Kapurthala.

5.18 These Centres carried out performance testing of different models of Improved Cookstoves as per the standard performance parameters given below:-

Sl. No.
Type of Biomass Cookstove
Standard Performance Parameters
Thermal Efficiency (%)
CO (g/MJd)
TPM (mg/MJd)
1
Natural Draft Type
Not less than 25
≤ 5
≤ 350
2
Forced Draft Type
Not less than 35
≤ 5
≤ 150

5.19 During 2015-16 MNRE received a total of 50 Test Reports of improved cookstoves tested in MNRE funded Test Centres which included 22 nos. from IIT Delhi (11 natural draft-domestic, 5 forced draft-domestic & 6 forced draft -community), 5 from CSIR-IMMT, Bhubaneswar (5 natural draft-domestic) and 22 from MPUAT, Udaipur (8 natural draft-domestic, 1 natural draft-community, 7 forced draft-domestic & 6 forced draft-community). At present a total of 40 improved cookstoves have been approved by MNRE on the basis of their performance testing conducted by Test Centres and satisfying stipulated performance parameters of BIS standards. These include 18 natural draft domestic cookstoves, 10 forced draft domestic cookstoves, 2 natural draft community cookstoves and 10 forced draft community cookstoves made by 26 manufacturers. The list of

approved cookstove models supplied by respective of manufacturers are given on the MNRE website.

5.20 The implementation of the UCA Programme by different SNAs was assessed in a review meeting held in MNRE on 3rd Sep.2015. Most of the States informed that steps had been initiated for implementation and expected to achieve the targets by 31st March 2016. In the state of Jammu & Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir Energy Development Agency (JAKEDA), which was the only State to achieve the targets, it was informed that improved cookstove are very popular and not only used for cooking purposes but also used for space heating.

5.21 In order to discuss the implementation strategy with implementing agencies and to create awareness among the stakeholders and beneficiaries, the Ministry had organised three Regional Workshop at Trivandrum (Kerala), Dehradun (Uttarakhand) and Jalna (Maharashtra) under Unnat Chulha Abhiyan Programme. At Trivandrum a workshop was organised on 25th May 2015 in ANERT Conference Hall where SNAs of Andaman & Nicobar, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala & Lakshadweep, SRLM of Goa & Energy Management Centre-Kerala, State Government Departments, Departments implementing Mid-day Meal Programme, NGOs and representatives of cook stove manufacturers participated in the workshop. During the workshop a field visit was organised to a nearby village where improved chulhas were installed. 2nd Workshop was organised on 18th August 2015 at UREDA, Dehradun where efficiency of community size improved cookstoves was demonstrated by preparing meal for participants of workshop. The 3rd Workshop was organised on 10th Jan 2016 at Dhawalkranti Training Centre, Jiradgao, Ghansangvi block, Jalna, Distt. Jalna,

Maharashtra where about 30 Self-Help Groups, officials of MSRLM were present. During the workshop live demonstration of improved cookstoves were conducted in order to provide a better understanding of improved cookstoves to the beneficiaries. In all these workshops, there was a positive response among the beneficiaries for adoption of Improved Cookstove so as to enable their health and reduce their drudgery.

 

Beneficiary using Unnat Chulha in J&K

5.22 Dr.(Mrs.) Parveen Dhamija, Director, MNRE being a nominated member of ISO/TC 285 and all its Working Group, visited Accra, Ghana from 3-6 November as a member of the delegation approved by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS ) alongwith Dr. Rajendra Prasad, IIT Delhi for attending the ISO/TC 285 meeting for development of international standards for clean cookstoves and clean cooking solutions. Indian

Trivandrum Workshop, 25.05.2015
Dehradun Workshop, 18.08.2015

delegation contributed effectively towards the preparation of an international conceptual framework for cookstove testing protocols and clean cooking solutions-guidance on field testing methods for cookstoves.

5.23 The Ministry in association with GIZ India hosted India Clean Cooking Forum (ICCF) 2015 on 5-6 Oct. 2015 at New Delhi with the theme “Developing a roadmap for universal access to clean cooking energy in India”. India Clean Cooking Forum benefitting with one of MNRE’s mandates of clean cooking energy provision through new and improved renewable sources of cooking energy i.e. Improved Biomass Cookstove, Biogas Plant, solar cooker etc. ICCF endeavour to engage with various groups of stakeholders to overcome the barriers to access clean cooking energy and ignite the clean cooking market in India. ICCF 2015 consists of Practitioner’s Workshop and conference. The objective of the Practitioner’s Workshop on 5th Oct.2015 was to identify emerging challenges for practitioners in light of the need to rapidly scale up access to clean cooking energy while sharing approaches adopted by the sector to meet some of these challenges. The objective of the day-long conference on 6th Oct.2015 was to bring together wide and diverse groups of stakeholders to initiate the development of a comprehensive and detailed roadmap for India to reach the goal of universal access to modern cooking energy services by 2030.

5.24 In order to promote processed fuel for clean cooking, a meeting of Biomass Pellet Manufacturers on Status, Technology & Issues of Biomass Pellets for Use in Improved Cookstove was held under the chairmanship of Ms. Varsha Joshi, Joint Secretary, MNRE with various Stakeholders. During the meeting the discussion focussed on BIS standardization of pellet manufacturing and decentralized manufacturing capacity at village and taluka level, testing standards, market creation & technology adoption. Further the discussion on availability of Raw Materials shows the supply chain management is lacking and there should be awareness at village level.

5.25 Under the UCA Programme, the Ministry is disseminating Improved Cookstove so as to overcome number of problems such as health, environment, deforestation, climate change, etc. The end users may take advantage of this initiative and can further contribute in the development by reducing the carbon foot print under

ISO TC 285 meeting, Accra, Ghana 06.11.2015
ICCF Workshop, New Delhi, 06.10.2015

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) set by the Govt. of India in COP21 at Paris on 30th Nov., 2015. Besides, there is a good potential of carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) for which a Program of Activity (PoA) is registered at UNFCCC and Gold Standard Foundation during 2013-2014. Sardar Swaran Singh – National Institute of Bio-Energy (SSS-NIBE), Kapurthala under MNRE has been designated as the Coordinating and Managing Entity (CME) for cookstove PoA to coordinate the efforts of different CDM programme Activity (CPA) implementers to distribute improved cookstoves in the boundary of the PoA and comply with the requirements of the PoA. The available resources are being utilized by the Ministry to popularize the CDM PoA through different programs/ workshops under the Unnat Chulha Abhiyan (UCA) to create awareness among the potential CPA implementers to take advantage of the PoA and UCA and make the technology more affordable and reachable to the end users, by all possible means.

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1. Overview   2. Introduction 3. Power from Renewables - Grid Interactive
and Off - Grid Renewable Power
4. National Solar Mission 5. Renewable Energy for Rural Applications 6. Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Application 7. Research, Design, Development and Demonstration in New and Renewable Energy 8. Renewable Energy in North Eastern States 9. Specialized Institutions 10. Support Programmes 11. International Renewable Energy Co-operation 12. Promotion of Official Language - Hindi I Annexure - I : Staff Strength I Annexure - II : Audit Paras