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INTRODUCTION

4.1 India is endowed with a very vast solar energy potential. Most parts of the country have about 300 sunny days. Average solar radiation incident over the land is in the range of 4-7 kWh per day. The solar energy can be utilized through solar photovoltaic technology which enables direct conversion of sunlight into energy and solar thermal technologies which utilizes heat content of solar energy into useful applications. Over the last three decades several solar energy based systems and devices have been developed and deployed in India which are successfully providing energy solutions for lighting, cooking, water heating, air heating, drawing and electricity generation. The research and development efforts have also helped in better efficiency, affordability and quality of the products. As a result many solar energy systems and devices are commercially available with affordable cost in the market.

4.2 Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched on 11th January, 2010. The Mission targets include (i) deployment of 20,000 MW of grid connected solar power by 2022, (ii) 2,000 MW of off-grid solar applications including 20 million solar lights by 2022, (iii) 20 million sq. m. solar thermal collector area, (iv) to create favourable conditions for developing solar manufacturing capability in the country; and (v) support R&D and capacity building activities to achieve grid parity by 2022. The Mission is to be implemented in three phases.

4.3 For the first phase of the Mission, the Cabinet had approved a target to set up 1,100 MW grid connected solar plants including 100 MW capacity as rooftop and other small solar power plants till March 2013. In addition, a target of 200 MW capacity equivalent off-grid solar applications and 7 million square meter solar thermal collector area were also approved. The Cabinet had also approved setting up of large utility scale grid power plants through bundling of solar power with the unallocated thermal power available from NTPC stations and the policy to provide generation based incentive for small grid connected solar power plants.

4.4 The Cabinet in its meeting held on 17/6/2015 has approved revision of cumulative targets under NSM from 20,000 MW by 2021-22 to 1,00,000 MW by 2021-22 for Grid Connected Solar Power Projects. The revised target of 1,00,000 MW is planned to be achieved in 7 years period and broadly consist of 40 GW Grid connected Rooftop projects and 60 GW large and medium size land based solar power projects. During the year a total capacity of 1135 MW has been commissioned, taking the cumulative installed capacity of grid connected solar power to 4879 MW as on 31.12.2015. The state-wise break up the cumulative capacity is given in Table no 4.1.

PHASE-I OF JNNSM (2010-13)

A) Grid Connected Solar Power

4.5 The Phase-I comprises of two sub-components viz., (i) 1,000 MW of large grid solar plants connected to 33 KV and above grid line, and (ii) 100 MW of rooftop and small solar plants, connected to grids below 33 KV.

Table 4.1 : Commissioning Status of Grid Connected Solar Power Projects

Sr. No

State/UT

Total MNRE Projects MW

State Policy MW

RPO MW

REC Scheme MW

Pvt. Initiative (Roof top) MW

CPSUs

MW

Total commissioned capacity till 31-12-15 (MW)

1

Andhra Pradesh

94.75

211.07

0

38.7

2.82

10

357.34

2

Arunachal Pradesh

0.265

0

0

0

0

0

0.265

3

Chhattisgarh

4

64.08

0

4.6

0.5

0

73.18

4

Gujarat

40

877.15

50

6

51

0

1024.15

5

Haryana

7.8

0

0

0

0

5

12.8

6

Jharkhand

16

0

0

0

0

0

16

7

Karnataka

15

66

10

0

4.22

9

104.22

8

Kerala

0.025

12

0

0

0

0

12.025

9

Madhya Pradesh

225.25

307.55

0

80.78

0

65

678.58

10

Maharashtra

72

126

50

121.32

9.38

0

378.7

11

Odisha

22

30

0

4.5

0.42

10

66.92

12

Punjab

10.5

182.05

0

7.52

0.25

0

200.32

13

Rajasthan

944.1

67.65

40

212.6

0

0

1264.35

14

Tamil Nadu

26

182.075

0

190.86

20.01

0

418.945

15

Telangana

0

61.95

0

23.4

6.1

0

91.45

16

Tripura

0

0

0

5

0

0

5

17

Uttar Pradesh

12

110.74

0

0

1.75

15.51

140

18

Uttarakhand

5

0

0

0

0

0

5

19

West Bengal

2.05

5

0

0

0.16

0

7.21

20

Andaman & Nicobar

0.1

0

0

0

0

5

5.1

21

Delhi

0.335

0

0

2.14

4.237

0

6.712

22

Lakshadweep

0.75

0

0

0

0

0

0.75

23

Puducherry

0.025

0

0

0

0

0

0.025

24

Chandigarh

5.041

0

0

0

0

0

5.041

25

Daman & Diu

0

4

0

0

0

0

4

26

Others

0.79

0

0

0

0

0

0.79

TOTAL

1503.781

2307.315

150

697.42

100.847

119.51

4878.873

1000 MW Capacity Grid-Connected Solar Power Projects implemented through NVVN

4.6 This scheme covered large solar power plants of total 1,000 MW capacity connected to grid at 33 kV and above - 500 MW capacity each based on Solar Thermal (ST) and Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) technologies. It includes three stages: (i) Migration Scheme (ii) NSM Phase-I, Batch-I and (iii) NSM Phase-I, Batch-II

Migration scheme

4.7 With a view to facilitate quick start-up to NSM and also speedier implementation of the then on-going projects under advanced stage of implementation in different States, this scheme was introduced in Feb 2010 to allow the migration of such projects to NSM. A total of 16 projects of 84 MW capacity (13 nos., 54MW - SPV and 3 nos., 30MW ST) were approved under this scheme for long-term procurement of power by NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Limited (NVVN) at Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) notified tariff for 2010-11 viz. Rs.17.91/unit for SPV

and Rs.15.31/unit for ST. 11 nos. SPV projects of 48 MW capacity and one ST project of 2.5 MW capacity have been commissioned under this scheme.

NSM Phase-I, Batch-I & Batch-II

4.8 Under NSM Phase-I, Batch-I and Batch-II, solar power projects were allotted through a process of reverse bidding. Bids for same were invited in two batches: Batch-I of 150 MW SPV and 470 MW ST in Aug 2010 and Batch-II of 350 MW SPV in Aug 2011.

4.9 In Batch-I the eligible project capacities were 5 MW for SPV and upto 100 MW for ST. 30 nos. SPV Projects with an aggregate capacity of 150 MW and 7 nos. of ST Projects with an aggregate capacity of 470 MW were selected. The bid tariffs for SPV projects were in the range of Rs.10.95-12.76/ unit, with average of Rs.12.11/unit and for ST projects in the range of Rs.10.49-12.24/unit, with weighted average of Rs.11.48/unit. 26 nos. SPV projects of aggregate 140 MW capacity and 3 nos. ST projects of aggregate 200 MW capacity have been commissioned under NSM Phase-I, Batch-I.

4.10 In Batch-II for SPV, the project capacity fixed was 5-20 MW. 28 nos. SPV projects with an aggregate capacity of 350 MW were selected. The tariff for the selected SPV projects was ranging between Rs.7.49-9.44/unit, with weighted average of Rs. 8.77/ unit. 27 nos. SPV projects of aggregate 330 MW capacity have been commissioned under NSM Phase-I, Batch-II.

4.11 A 5 MW SPV project by Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation Limited (DMICDC) has also been set up under the MNRE bundling scheme of NSM Phase-I.

4.12 Thus, under NSM Phase-I, 523 MW solar PV projects and 202.5 MW solar thermal power projects have been commissioned under the bundling scheme.

4.13 Power generated from the commissioned plants is being purchased by NVVN and being sold to State Utilities/ DISCOMS under a mechanism of bundling with power from unallocated quota of power from coal based stations of NTPC Ltd. on equal

20 MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Vill. Kachalia, The. Badod, Dist. Agar, Madhya Pradesh
50 MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Vill. Molga Lasudia Goyal, Tomia, The. Ichhawar, Dist. Sehore, Madhya Pradesh

10 MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Vill. Khetusar, Teh. Bap, Dist. Jodhpur, Rajasthan
10 MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Vill. Nimabhera, Teh. Shapura, Dist. Bhiwara, Rajasthan

capacity basis to effectively reduce the average per unit cost of bundled solar power to the purchasing Utilities. A Payment Security Mechanism involving a revolving fund of Rs. 484 crore has been put in place to ensure timely payments to developers in the event of delays/ defaults in payments by the purchasing State Utilities to NVVN.

100 MW capacity Solar Power Plants

4.14 MNRE announced the Guidelines namely Rooftop PV and Small Solar Power Generation Programme (RPSSGP) for solar power plants connected to distribution network (Below 33 kV) in June 2010. The aim of the scheme was to encourage the States to declare their Solar Policy for grid connected projects focusing on distribution network and to strengthen the tail-end of the grid. The purpose of the scheme was also to encourage as many States as possible to set up small solar grid connected projects. It also helped States to create a database of performance of solar plants under different climatic and grid conditions. This was considered necessary for large-scale replication in future, particularly for meeting rural needs in the next phase of the Solar Mission.

The role of the Ministry was limited to providing a fixed Generation Based Incentive (GBI) to the State utilities at a rate equal to the difference of the CERC tariff for 2010-11 (Rs. 17.91 per kWh) and a reference rate of Rs. 5.5 per kWh. The projects were registered with IREDA through a web-based process.

Achievement

4.15 78 projects were selected to set up 98 MW capacity projects from 12 States. Against this, 71 projects of total capacity 90.80 MW have been connected to grid with State-wise details as given in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2 State Wise Projects Commissioned under RPSSGP Scheme

Sl. No

State
State
No. of Projets
No. of Projects

(MW)

1

Andhra Pradesh

10

9.75

2

Chhattisgarh

2

4

3

Haryana

8

7.8

4

Jharkhand

8

16

5

Madhya Pradesh

3

5.25

6

Maharashtra

3

5

7

Odisha

7

7

8

Punjab

5

6

9

Rajasthan

12

12

10

Tamil Nadu

6

6

11

Uttarakhand

3

5

12

Uttar Pradesh

4

7

Total

71

90.8

B) Off-grid Solar Applications including Solar Heating

4.16 The guidelines for implementation of off-grid solar applications were also announced on 16th June 2010. A provision of 30% capital subsidy and/or soft loan @5% was made for general category states. In case of solar photovoltaic applications, a capital subsidy limited to a maximum of 90% of the benchmark cost is available for Government driven projects in the special category states viz. NE, Sikkim, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and also the international border districts and islands, keeping in view special needs of the region and overall policy of the Government. IREDA was assigned the task to provide refinance to the interested banks to enable them to offer loans to consumers at 5% annual interest rate. In order to encourage multiple channel partners to access support and reach out to the people, a process of accreditation of solar system integrators was introduced by the Ministry. Reputed agencies such as CRISIL, Fitch and ICRA were involved in the process.

Application Segment

Target for Phase I (2010-13)

Achievements till March, 2013

Grid Solar Power (large plants, roof top & distribution grid plants)

1,100 MW

1686.44 MW

Off-grid solar applications

200 MW

252.5 MW

Solar Thermal Collectors (SWHs, solar cooking, solar cooling, Industrial process heat applications, etc.)

7 million sq. meters

7.01 million sq..meters

Achievements

4.17 Out of capacity of 200 MW, Ministry fixed a target of sanctioning 32 MW capacity projects in 2010-11 against which 40.6 MW capacity off-grid solar PV projects were sanctioned in 2010-11. Another 77.471 MWp were sanctioned during 2011-12 against a target of 68 MWp for the year. During 2012-13, 134.5 MWp capacity projects were sanctioned. The total capacity sanctioned during Phase-I

thus was 252.5 MW. For solar thermal collector area during the first phase, about 7.01 million square meter of collector area has been installed against a target of 7.0 million.

C) Domestic Manufacture

4.18 One of the objectives of the Mission is to substantially enhance solar manufacturing across the value chain in the country. In line with this objective in the first phase of the Mission, 30% domestic content was made necessary for grid-connected solar thermal projects. This condition was in place for all solar thermal power projects selected in the first phase. For the photovoltaic projects selected during 2010-11, use of domestic crystalline silicon modules was mandatory, but solar cells and modules made with other technologies can be imported. In Batch-II projects, selected in 2011-12 use of crystalline silicon solar cells and modules was allowed only if domestically manufactured. Products with other technologies i.e. thin film and CPE could, however, be imported.

D) Institutional Arrangements

4.19 Solar Energy Corporation of India, a Section-25 Company (now a PSU renamed as Renewable Energy Corporation of India) was incorporated on 20th September 2011 with an authorized Capital of Rs.2,000 crore and its office is at Saket, New Delhi. This Company is functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of New & Renewable Energy and would implement and is facilitating the various activities of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM). Secretary, MNRE is functioning as Chairman, Renewable Energy Corporation of India. All four whole time Directors, Director (Solar), Director (Power Systems), Director (Finance) and Director (HR) have been appointed. The Company has already started its normal functioning.

4.20 Solar Energy Research Advisory Council (SERIC) has been set up to advice on research policy with a view to achieve Mission targets.

III. PHASE-II OF NSM (2013-17)

4.21 The Phase-I of JNNSM (2010-13) generated a huge interest in the solar sector wherein Gird connected and off-grid projects were commissioned throughout the country. Achievements of Phase-I exceeded the targets set for the period. This momentum needed to be carried forward to the next phase.

Targets of Phase-II

Application Segment

Target for Phase 2 (2013-17)

Grid Solar Power (large plants, roof top & distribution grid plants)

9,000 MW

Off-grid Solar Applications

800 MW

Solar Thermal Collectors (SWHS, solar cooking, solar cooling, Industrial process heat applications, etc.)

8 million sq. meters

Future Plan

4.22 The Cabinet in its meeting held on 17/6/2015 has approved revision of cumulative targets under National Solar Mission (NSM) from 20,000 MW by 2021-22 to 1,00,000 MW by 2021-22 for Grid Connected Solar Power Projects. The revised target of 1,00,000 MW is planned to be achieved in 7 years period and broadly consist of 40 GW Grid connected Rooftop projects and 60 GW large and medium size land based solar power projects. Vision for 100,000 MW of solar power capacity by 2022 is proposed as below:

Category-I

Proposed Capacity

Category-II

(Capacity in MW) Proposed Capacity

Rooftop Solar

 

 

 

40,000

Projects by Unemployed graduates, Village Panchayats, Small Scale Industries (SSI) Units

10,000

Public Sector Undertakings

10,000

Large Private Sector

5,000

SECI

5,000

Under State Policies

20,000

Ongoing programmes

10,000*

Total

40,000

60,000*

* 3743 MW commissioned up to 2014-15

Focus area under Phase-II of NSM

A) Grid connected Projects

4.23 Unlike Phase-I, NSM Phase-II aim for achieving significantly higher scales of targets of 100 GW. Hence, Ministry has contemplated all possible options for implementation of the Mission. Selection of capacity for Phase-II, grid connected projects is being done via different schemes such as Bundling, Generation Based Incentive (GBI), Viability Gap Funding (VGF). This allocation of target capacity may be altered depending upon the availability of resources.

Action Taken

4.24 The Ministry has formulated a range of schemes for achieving the aspirational target of 100 GW. The details of the schemes are given in succeeding paras.

Scheme for setting up over 300 MW of Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects by Defence Establishments under Ministry of Defence and Para Military Forces with Viability Gap Funding under Phase-II/III of NSM.

4.25 The Establishments in the border area and remote locations use diesel as the primary source of energy. In some areas they pay very high tariff. Solar power is clean source of energy and can replace diesel power generation to a large extent. Potential of Solar Energy in cantonment and Military Stations are approximately 5000 MW and in Ordnance Factory Boards (OFB)

and other Defence Establishments agreed to set up solar power projects on the large tracts of land and vacant rooftops which they own. The Cabinet has approved the Scheme in its meeting held on 10th December, 2014. The Ministry has issued Administrative Approval on 07th January, 2015.

4.26 The broad guidelines of the scheme are as under:

  1. A capacity of 300 MW will be set up in various Establishments of Ministry of Defence i.e. Establishments of Army, Navy, Air Force, Ordnance Factory Board, Defence Laboratories and Defence PSUs etc. Para Military Forces would also be covered under this scheme. Minimum size of the project shall be 1 MW.

Government has also given permission for Right to Use the Defence Land by the Developers chosen by Defence Establishments by way of lease and otherwise or for self-use of the same by Defence Establishments themselves for the purpose of setting up of Solar Power Projects and sale of access power to the Distribution Companies.

  1. The projects under this Scheme will mandatorily use solar cells/modules which are made in India.
  2. The following two modes may be used for tendering

A) Developer Mode: This is mode under which the project is given to developer, who makes the investment, own the project and supplies power to Defence Establishments.

B) EPC Mode: This is applicable when project is built through EPC contractor and investment is made by the Defence establishment/Para Military Forces.

  1. The Defence organisations/Establishments will be free to own the power projects i.e. get a EPC contractor to build the project for them or get a developer who makes the investment and supplies power at a fixed tariff of Rs.5.50 per unit for 25 years (or Rs. 4.75 with AD).
  2. The solar project developers will be provided VGF based on the bid. The bidders will be selected on the basis of bids for minimum VGF requirement for the project with commitment to supply solar power at Rs. 5.50/KWh for 25 years. The upper limits of the VGF are as follows:

Category-I: Rs.2.5 Cr./MW for project capacity upto 5 MW or 30% of the project cost whichever is lower;

Category-II: Rs. 2 Cr./MW for project capacity greater than 5 MW upto 25 MW or 30% of the project cost whichever is lower; and

Category-III: Rs. 1.5 Cr./MW for project capacity greater than 25 MW or 30% of the project cost whichever is lower.

4.27 Domestic Content Requirement (DCR): The entire capacity of 300 MW will be kept for bidding in phases, with DCR. Under DCR, the solar cells and modules used in the solar PV power plants must both be made in India as per specification and testing requirement by MNRE.

4.28 Project Implementation Schedule: Total of 300 W capacities added in 5 years period i.e. from 2014-19.

4.29 Achievements: As on date, 185 MW is allocated under this scheme.

Sl. No

Name of Orgn.
Capacity allocated (MW)

1.

Ordnance Factory Board, Kolkata

150.00

2

Border Security Force, MHA

10.00

3

Bharat Dynamics Limited

25.00

Implementation of Scheme for Development of Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects.

4.30 Hon’ble Finance Minister in his 2014-15 Budget Speech, inter-alia, announced as under:

“New & Renewable Energy deserves a very high priority. It is proposed to take up Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Laddakh in J&K. I have set aside a sum of Rs. 500 crore for this.”

4.31 This scheme envisages supporting the States in setting up solar parks at various locations in the country with a view to create required infrastructure for setting up of Solar Power Projects. The solar parks will provide suitable developed land with all clearances, transmission system, water access, road connectivity, communication network, etc. This scheme will facilitate and speed up installation of grid connected solar power projects for electricity generation on a large scale. All the States and Union Territories are eligible for benefitting under the scheme.

4.32 The salient features of the scheme are as under:

  1. It is proposed to set up at least 25 Solar Parks and Ultra Mega Solar Power Projects targeting over 20,000 MW of solar power installed capacity within a span of 5 years starting from 2014-15.

  2. The capacity of the Solar Parks shall be 500 MW and above. However, smaller parks may be considered in Himalayan Region & other hilly States where contiguous land may be difficult to acquire in view of difficult terrain and in States where there is acute shortage of non-agricultural land.

  3. The solar parks will be developed in collaboration with the State Governments and their agencies. The choice of implementing agency for developing and maintaining the park is left to the State Government.

  4. The implementing agency may be sanctioned a grant of upto Rs.25 Lakh/Park for preparing Detailed Project Report (DPR) of the Solar Park.

  5. v. Thereafter, application may be made by the implementing agency to Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) for the grant of up to Rs. 20 lakh/MW or 30% of the project cost including Grid-connectivity cost, whichever is lower. The approved grant will be released by SECI as per milestones prescribed in the scheme.

  6. Financial Implications:

A total fund requirement to provide Central Financial Assistance (CFA) is estimated as Rs 4050.00 crore with the following year-wise break up:

Year

Disbursement of funds (Rs. in Crore)

2014-15

500.00

2015-16

550.00

2016-17

600.00

2017-18

1000.00

2018-19

1400.00

Total

4050.00

4.33 Specific Advantages:

  1. Solar parks will enable to lower the solar tariff due to factors like economies of scale, assured supply of land and power evacuation systems.
  2. Solar parks will enable development of solar power in remote areas where land is inexpensive.
  3. As transmission system will be developed for the entire park, developers will not have to set up their own transmission lines. This will not only save money but will also avoid damaging the land scape of the area as only limited transmission lines would be laid.
  4. The developers would be able to set up projects very fast as they will not have to get statutory and other clearances.
  5. India will emerge as a major solar power producing country as nowhere in the world solar parks are being developed on such a large scale.

Achievements

4.34 A total of 29 Solar Parks in 20 States have been approved with a solar power capacity of 18679 MW as on 15.1.2016. State-wise details are given in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3 Details of Solar Parks approved to different States/UTs (As on 31.12.2015)

S. No.
State
Capacity (MW)
Name of the Solar PowerParks Developer (SPPD)
Land identified at
1. Andhra Pradesh
1500
AP Solar Power Corporation Pvt. Ltd., JVC of SECI, APGENCO and NREDCAP NP Kunta of Anantpuramu & Galiveedu of Kadapa Districts
2. Andhra Pradesh
1000
Kurnool District
3. Andhra Pradesh
1000
Galiveedu Madal, Kadapa district
4. A&N Islands
100
NTPC South Andaman
5. Arunachal Pradesh
100
Arunachal Pradesh Energy Development Agency (APEDA) Tezu township in Lohit district
6. Assam
69
JVC of APDCL, APGCL & SECI Amguri in Sibsagar district
7. Chhattisgarh
500
CREDA Rajnandgaon, Janjgir Champa districts
8. Gujarat
700
GPCL Radhanesda, Vav, Distt. Banaskantha
9. Himachal Pradesh
1000
HP State Electricity Board Ltd. Spiti Valley of Lahaul & Spiti District
10. Jammu & Kashmir
100
To be finalized To be finalized
11. Karnataka
2000
Karnataka Solar Power Development Corporation Pvt. Ltd. (KSPDCL); JVC of SECI and KREDAL. Pavagada taluk Tumkur dist.

S. No.

State

Capacity (MW)

Name of the Solar Power Parks Developer (SPPD)

Land identified at

12.

Kerala

200

JVC of SECI and KSEB

Paivalike, Meenja, Kinanoor, Kraindalam and Ambalathara villages of Kasargode district

13.

Madhya Pradesh

750

Rewa Ultra Mega Solar Limited; a JVC of SECI and MPUVNL

Rewa, MP

14.

Madhya Pradesh

2000

Rewa Ultra Mega Solar Limited; a JVC of SECI and MPUVNL

Neemuch, Agar, Mandsaur, Shajapur, Rajgarh, Chhatarpur and Morena of MP

15

Maharashtra

500

M/s Pragat Akshay Urja Ltd

Sakri, Dhule district of Maharashtra

16.

Maharashtra

500

Maharashtra State Electricity Generating Company Ltd. (MAHAGENCO)

Dondaicha, district Dhule, Maharashtra

17.

Maharashtra

500

M/s K. P. Power Pvt. Ltd

Taluka Patoda, district Beed, Maharashtra

18.

Meghalaya

20

Meghalaya Power Generation Corporation Ltd (MePGCL)

West Jaintia Hills & East Jaintia Hills districts

19.

Nagaland

60

Directorate of New & Renewable Energy, Nagaland

Dimapur, Kohima and New Peren districts

20.

Odisha

1000

JVC of GEDCOL & SECI

To be finalized

21.

Rajasthan

680

Rajasthan Solar Park Development Company Ltd. (RSDCL), a subsidiary of RECL

Bhadla Phase II, Bhadla, Rajasthan

22.

Rajasthan

1000

Surya Urja Company of Rajasthan Ltd; a JVC between State Govt. and IL & FS Energy Development Company Ltd

Bhadla Phase III, Bhadla, Rajasthan

23.

Rajasthan

750

M/s Essel Surya Urja Company of Rajasthan Limited; JVof GoR and Essel Infraprojects Limited

Villages Ugraas, Nagnechinagar & Dandhu, tehsil Phalodi, dist Jodhpur (450 MW) and villages Lavan & Purohitsar, tehsil Pokaran, dist Jaisalmer (300 MW)

24.

Rajasthan

500

M/s Adani Renewable Energy Park Rajasthan Limited (AREPRL); a JVC of Government of Rajasthan and APEPRL.

Bhadla Phase IV, Bhadla, Jodhpur

Rajasthan

25.

Tamil Nadu

500

To be finalised

Ramanathapuram distt.

26.

Telangana

500

SECI, Telangana GENCO and Telangana New & Renewable Energy Development Corporation Ltd. (TNREDC)

Gattu, Mehboob Nagar Distt.

27.

Uttar Pradesh

600

Lucknow Solar Power Development Corporation Ltd.; JVC of UPNEDA and SECI

Jalaun, Allahabad, Mirzapur and Kanpur Dehat districts

28.

Uttarakhand

50

State Industrial Development Corporation Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL)

Industrial Area, Sitarganj (Phase I), Industrial Area, Sitarganj (Phase II) and Industrial Area, kashipur

29.

West Bengal

500

West Bengal State ElectricityDistribution Company Ltd.

East Mednipur, West Mednipur, Bankura

TOTAL

18679

750 MW VGF Scheme under NSM Phase-II,

10 MW SPV Power Plant installed by Fortum Finnsurya
40 MW SPV Power Plant installed by IL&FS

Batch-I

4.35 Solar Energy Corporation of India (“SECI”) is the implementing agency for MNRE’s 750 MW VGF scheme under NSM Phase II, Batch I for setting up large scale ground-mounted solar PV projects on pan-India basis. The scheme capacity is equally distributed between open-sourced solar cells and modules and domestically manufactured ones. Through this scheme, power is being supplied to various Discoms at Rs. 5.50 per unit, fixed for 25 years. Another hallmark of this scheme is the promotion of large scale inter-state transfer of solar power.

4.36 During the year 2015-16, large-scale ground-mounted solar PV projects with cumulative capacity of 650 MW have been commissioned under commercial operation, in this scheme across 6 states. Another 30 MW capacity is expected to get commissioned by 31st March, 2016, bringing the cumulative to 680 MW. Rs. 428.30 crore has been released as first tranche of VGF to developers. (Till 29th January, 2016)

Scheme for setting up over 2,000 MW of Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects with Viability Gap Funding (VGF) under Batch-III of Phase II of the NSM.

4.37 Ministry has approved a scheme for setting up of solar power projects of 2000 MW capacity with VGF support under the NSM Phase II, Batch III. Through this scheme, projects are to be set up by Solar Power Developers (SPDs) on Build-Own-Operate basis, selected through a process of open and transparent competitive reverse bidding on the VGF amount. There is a provision for reduction in tariff accordingly, when the VGF quoted is negative.

4.38 Under this scheme, developers would be paid a tariff of Rs. 4.43 per kWh or the discounted tariff discovered through e-reverse auctioning on VGF, for 25 years by entering into a PPA with SECI. Power from these projects would, in turn, be sold to various Discoms/Bulk consumers/state utilities by SECI at Rs. 4.50 per kWh (including trading margin of 7 paisa per unit).

4.39 The tenders floated by SECI in this scheme are state-specific. Projects would be set up in the Solar Parks being developed in the states, or at other locations. These

projects would be commissioned with in a period of 13 months from signing of PPA. In this scheme, 250 MW capacity has been earmarked for bidding with Domestic Content Requirement (DCR).

4.40 SECI has released Request for Selection (RfS) documents for 2640 MW across four states- Maharashtra (450 MW), Gujarat (250 MW), Uttar Pradesh (440 MW), Andhra Pradesh (500 MW) and Karnataka (1000 MW). Whereas the projects in the states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are solar-park based, those in Maharashtra and Karnataka are open to all locations within the state.

Implementation of scheme for setting up of over 5000 MW Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects with Viability Gap Funding under Batch-IV of Phase-II of the NSM

4.41 On the lines of the 2000 MW VGF Scheme, another VGF scheme of 5,000 MW capacity under Batch-IV of Phase-II of NSM is also approved by the Cabinet. The requirement of funds to provide VGF for 5,000 MW capacity solar PV projects is estimated to be Rs. 5,050 crore .The upper limit for VGF will be Rs. 1.00 crore per MW for open category and Rs 1.25 crore for DCR category.

4.42 The Viability Gap Funding (VGF) scheme will be implemented for setting up over 5,000 MW capacity of grid connected solar power projects by solar power developers on build, own and operate basis through open and transparent competitive bidding to provide solar power at a pre-defined tariff of Rs. 4.93 per kWh for the first year. For the remaining years, the tariff will be decided based on the market conditions.

4.43 The Scheme will be implemented by SECI as per MNRE Guidelines. SECI shall prepare necessary bidding documents for inviting the proposals for setting up of projects on a competitive bidding through e-bidding. SECI will enter into Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with the selected developers and the Power Sale Agreement (PSA) with the buying entities.

4.44 This would help create additional 5,000 MW capacity of Grid-connected solar PV power generation projects in four trenches of each 1,250 MW capacity during four financial years 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19. 100% VGF will be released soon after the commissioning of the projects.

4.45 This would also help generate employment for about 30,000 people in rural and urban areas with reduction of about 8.525 Million T of CO2 emissions into environment every year.

4.46 This will also facilitate creating employment and infrastructure in States. Installation of 5,000 MW Solar PV plants will generate about 8,300 million units per year, which caters power to almost 2.5 million households.

Status of implementation of the MNRE’s Scheme for setting up of 1000 MW of Grid connected Solar PV power projects by CPSUs and Govt. organizations under various Central/State Schemes/Self use/3rd Party sale/Merchant sale with Viability Gap Funding (VGF) under Phase-II of NSM.

4.47 The Ministry launched the above scheme in January 2015 to set up 1000 MW of Grid Connected Solar PV Power Project by CPSUs and Govt. Organizations with VGF.

4.48 The broad guidelines of the scheme are as under:

  1. The duration of implementation of the Scheme is 2014-17.
  2. The project has to owned by GOI Organizations/CPSUs.
  3. The Project can be set up on land/rooftops.
  4. The power so generated can be for self-use/third party sale/merchant sale or sale to Discoms on applicable tariff.
  5. GOI will provide VGF as under:

(a) Rs.1 Cr. /MW, if Cells and Modules are procured for the project from indigenous source.

(b) Rs.50 Lakh /MW, if Modules are procured for the project from indigenous source.

  1. VGF will be released in two tranches as follows:

(a) 50% on LoI and start of installation work at plant; and

(b) balance 50% on successful commissioning of the full capacity of the project (CoD).

4.49 Under the above Scheme, MNRE had allocated 1212 MW to various CPSUs including Railways, NTPC, NHPC, NEEPCO etc. However, during a review meeting held on 28/12/2015, some CPSUs have expressed difficulties like State Discoms not signing PPA, non-availability of land, inadequate funds, etc. and approval pending in their parent Ministries. Therefore, some sanctions given earlier viz. Railways (200 MW), NHPC (100 MW), NEEPCO (95 MW), etc. were cancelled and re-allocated to other CPSUs. As on 1st March 2016, the entire 1000 MW capacity has been allocated to 16 CPSUs/Govt. Organizations

Sl. No.

Name of PSU/Govt. organisations

Capacity sanctioned MW

1

NTPC
500.00

2

BHEL
16.50

3

Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd.
5.00

4

Coal India Ltd.
200.00

5

NHPC Ltd.
50.00

6

NEEPCO
5.00

7

Neyveli Lignite Corporation India Ltd.
130.00

8

GAIL (India) Ltd
12.89

9

Under Ministries/Departments Quota @ 1 MW each * (i) Scooters India Ltd;
  1. Scooters India Ltd;
1.00
  1. Sambhar Salts Ltd
3.00
  1. Dadra Nagar Haveli Power Distribution Corporation Ltd.
3.00
  1. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, National Police Academy (SVPNPA), Hyderabad
1.00
  1. Central Armed Police Forces Institute of Medical Sciences 1.00 (CAPFIMS), New Delhi
1.00
Total
928.39

Work in Progress at NTPC's 250 MW Solar PV Power Project, divided into five blocks of 50 MW each p1, p2, p3, p4 and p5 at Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh

4.50 Time Over-run/cost over-run:

The duration of implementation of the Scheme is 2015-18.

Time over-run : Nil

Cost over-run : Nil

4.51 Status of award of projects in 2 categories:-

Category
Status of work
Capacity (MW)
Name of CPSUs and
capacity (MW)
A. Work started 257.50 NTPC Ltd. (250) and Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. (6.50), and Scooters India Ltd (1 MW).
B.
Work is likely to be started in next 3 months
670.89
Coal India Ltd. (200 MW), NHPC Ltd. (50 ) Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd (5) NTPC (250 MW additional), Neyveli Lignite Corporation India Ltd. (130MW), NEEPCO (5 MW), GAIL (India) Ltd (12.89 MW), Sambhar Salts (3 MW), Dadra Nagar Haveli Power Distribution Corporation Ltd (3 MW); Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, National Police Academy (SVPNPA), Hyderabad (1 MW); and Central Armed Police Forces Institute of Medical Sciences (CAPFIMS), New Delhi (1 MW), BHEL (10 MW)
  Total 928.39  

4.52 The expected date of commissioning in the case of 3 CPSUs who have already started the work is also given below:-

S.No. Name of CPSU Capacity(MW) Expected date of commissioning
1 NTPC Ltd. 250.00 200 MW – April, 2016 50 MW – Oct. 2016
2 Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd 6.50 1.5 MW – Feb. 2016 5 MW – March, 2016
3 Scooters India Ltd. 1.00 May – June, 2016
Total 257.50

Grid-Interactive Rooftop and Small SPV Power Plants Programme

4.53 There is a large potential available for generating solar power using unutilized space on rooftops and wastelands around buildings. Small quantities of power generated by each individual household, industrial building, commercial buildings or any other type of building can be used to partly fulfil the requirement of the building occupants and surplus, if any, can be fed into the grid. If the existing roof space of buildings is utilized, the Grid Connected SPV Rooftop systems on buildings can also replace/ supplement the existing DG gensets installed for minimum load requirement for operation during load shedding. These loads are generally varying between 25kW to 100 kW or so. This is possible, if the distribution company (DISCOMS) for that area allows the power to be fed into the grid and has the necessary arrangements including availability of meters.

4.54 In grid interactive rooftop or small SPV system, the DC power generated from SPV panel is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid either of 11 kV three phase lines or of 220 single phase line depending on the system installed at institution/commercial establishment or residential complex. They generate power during the day time which is utilized fully by powering captive loads and feeding excess power to the grid as long as grid is available. In case, where solar power is not sufficient due to cloud cover etc., the captive loads are served by drawing power from the grid.

Achievement

4.55 The Ministry is implementing a ‘Grid Connected Rooftop and Small Solar Power Plants Programme’ to promote grid connected solar rooftop systems in the country. During 12th Five Year Plan, a target of 300 MWp with financial outlay of Rs.600 crore was set by the Ministry. Government of India has now revised the target for installation of 40 GWp grid connected solar rooftop systems by 2022 in the country.

4.56 So far, 476.56 MWp solar rooftop systems have been sanctioned of which 160.60 MWp have been sanctioned under the ‘Grid Connected Rooftop and Small Solar Power Plants Programme’ and 315.96 MWp under 5 nos. projects under National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF). So far, about 159 MWp aggregate capacity has been

installed in the country as given in Table 4.4. These systems have been installed in residential, industrial, commercial and institutional sectors. Solar rooftop projects are being implemented by State Nodal Agencies (SNA’s), Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI), Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) and other Multi Government Agencies (MGAs), Private Developers etc.

4.57 The major infrastructure sector i.e. Metro Rail Projects, Railways, Airports, Jal Boards, Shipping, Sports Stadia, Oil Companies, Factories etc. are also coming forward for installation of Grid Connected Solar Rooftop Plants. The In-principle approval has been given for 2050.09 MWp to Solar Energy Corporation of India (750 MWp), States/Governments/SNAs (638.6 MWp), Railways (450 MWp) and PSUs/Government Department (211.49 MWp).

1 MWp SPV Modules on Platform-2 Katra Railway Station, J&K
200 KWp SPV Power Plant at Nirman Bhawan-1, New Delhi

 

400 kWp at M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bengaluru, Karnataka

Sl. No

State/UTs

Total Sanctioned and approved in principle

Total Achivement (in MWp)

1

Andhra Pradesh

39.5

3.581

2

Bihar

0

0.1

3

Chhattisgarh

11.2

17.08

4

Chandigarh

20.5

6

5

Delhi

8

11.40375

6

Gujarat

11.75

23.165

7

Goa

2

0

8

Jharkhand

5

0.186

9

J&K

7

1

10

Haryana

5

3.259

11

Himachal Pradesh

0.894

0

12

Kerala

15.28

0.159

13

Karnataka

0.935

8.166

14

Madhya Pradesh

115

0.6

15

Maharashtra

0

6.66

16

Manipur

3.4

0

17

Mizoram

18

Odisha

4

0.86

19

Puducherry

0.02

0

20

Punjab

25

25.999

21

Rajasthan

31

5.782

22

Tamil Nadu

311.74

13.206

23

Tripura

0

0

24

Telangana

74

8.346

25

Uttarakhand

51

5.925

26

Uttar Pradesh

7

3.705

27

West Bengal

5.98

1.167

28

Andaman &Nicober Island

1

0

29

Lakshadweep

1

0

Sub total

757.199

146.45

30

Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI)

949.6

39.274*

31

Ministry of Railways

502.5

1.5

32

Allocation to PSUs/multi Govt. departments

317.356

11.365

Total

2526.66

159.315

*achievement of SECI included in State-wise list

Salient Features of the CCEA approval

4.58 A scheme to promote grid connected solar rooftop systems is already under implementation. Following approval has been recently given by CCEA on 30.12.2015:

  1. Up-scaling of the existing financial outlay of Rs.600 crore during 12th Plan Period for ‘Grid Connected Rooftop and Small Solar Power Plants Programme’ to Rs.5,000 crore for implementation over a period of five years i.e. 2015-16, 2016-

150 kWp Solar Rooftop on a Curved Roof at a Metro Station, Faridabad

17, 2017-18, 2018-19 & 2019-20 (Rs.1750 crore during 12th Plan and balance Rs.3250 crore during remaining period i.e. 2017-18 to 2019-20).

  1. The existing pattern of capital subsidy at the rate of upto 30% of benchmark cost for the general category States (upto 70% of benchmark cost for special category States i.e., North Eastern States including Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands) be modified to the extent that there will be no subsidy for commercial and industrial establishments in the private sector.
  2. The Government Institutions including Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) shall not be eligible for subsidy; instead they will be given achievement-linked incentives/awards.

4.59 This 4200 MWp will create the market, build the confidence of the consumers and will enable the balance capacity to come up in parallel through market mode to achieve the target of 40,000 MWp by 2022.

4.60 The year-wise breakup of the financial outlay and the corresponding target and major activities is given is as under:

Targets

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

2019-20

Total

Physical Target Capacity to be sanctioned/allocated (MWp)

1000

1500

1500

200

---

4200

Financial Target (Rs. in crore)

250

1500

1500

1000

750

5000

Other Important achievements

4.61 State Electricity Regulatory Commissions of 26 States/UTs namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands,

19.5 MWp Solar Rooftop systems at the campus of Dera Beas, Amritsar, Punjab

Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi and Puducherry have notified regulations for net metering/feed-in-tariff mechanism.

4.62 So far, 16 States namely Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal have come out with Solar Policy supporting grid connected rooftop systems.

4.63 Recently, Reserve Bank of India has included renewable energy projects under priority sector lending for which bank loans up to a limit of Rs. 15 crore to borrowers will be available for renewable energy projects including grid connected solar rooftop and ground mounted systems. For individual households, the loan limit is Rs. 10 lakh per borrower.

4.64 Department of Financial Services has advised all Public Sector Banks to provide loans for grid connected rooftop solar systems as home loan/ home improvement loan. So far, 11 PSBs namely Bank of India, Bharatiya Mahila Bank, Syndicate Bank, State Bank of India, Dena Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Allahabad Bank, Indian Bank, Indian Overseas Bank and State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur have given instructions to their branches.

4.65 The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has also notified the “Installation and Operation of Meters” guidelines vide its amendment regulation in 3rd December 2014.

4.66 In addition, 433 nos of Channel Partners, 170 nos. of New Entrepreneurs and 14 nos. of Govt. agencies have been empanelled.

4.67 To achieve the overall target of 40,000 MWp of solar rooftops installations, possibilities of providing low cost financing by availing soft loans from different International funding agencies like KfW, World Bank and Asian Development Bank

through Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), State Bank of India, Punjab National Banks are also being explored.

4.68 Solar Rooftop Calculator has also been developed for financial calculations of grid connected solar rooftop projects on PAN India basis.

4.69 An online platform namely SPIN has been developed for submission of online proposal, project completion reports, empanelment of channel partners/ New Entrepreneurs / Govt. Agencies etc., data management, communications etc. SPIN stands for “Solar Photovoltaic Installations”, is an e-governance of initiative of the Ministry. It is an online system designed to monitor almost all activities involved in Solar Rooftop Installations. It contains a useful tool for calculating the rooftop area or estimate for installation of rooftop for a lay man and provision for entering his request for installing the SPV system. For mobile users there is provision for QR Code. For agencies whether it is New Entrepreneur, Channel Partner or Govt agencies or SNAs or any other agencies, provision is there for the registration to empanelment and applying for target and disbursement of subsidies. SPIN is also inbuilt with utilities like email and SMS for communicating to various stake holders. It is a one stop portal for Govt. of India’s prestigious programme Solar Rooftop Installations. The SPIN has been designed and developed by National Informatics Centre (NIC).

4.70 Rs. 70.00 crore has been released to different States/departments for the year 2015-16.

Pilot-cum-demonstration project for development of grid connected solar PV power plants on canal banks and canal tops.

4.71 With the objective of achieving gainful utilization of the unutilized area on top of Canals and also the vacant Government land along the banks of Canals wherever available, for setting up Solar PV power generation plants for feeding the generated power to Grid, the Government of India, under National Solar Mission (NSM), has approved the implementation of “Pilot-cum-Demonstration Project for Development of Grid Connected Solar PV Power Plants on Canal Banks and Canal Tops”.

4.72 Administrative Approval issued on 5th December, 2014

Target : 100 MW Grid Connected Solar PV Power Plants on Canal Banks and Canal Tops (50 MW on Canal Tops and 50 MW on Canal Banks)

Implementation Arrangements

  1. Applicability: All the States and Union Territories having Canal network will be eligible for benefits under the scheme. However, the Scheme may be availed by only those States which have either fulfilled their Solar RPOs or commit to do so within a given time frame.
  2. Eligibility: State Power Generation Companies/ State Government Utilities/ any other State Government Organization/ PSUs/ GoI PSUs or GoI organisations, provided that they are operating in power sector or own canal systems, i.e. are into irrigation. Proposals from States in Project mode will also be acceptable on completion during 2014-15 or later.

  1. Implementation agency: The solar PV power plants will be developed by the State Power Generation Companies/ State Government Utilities/ any other State Government Organization/ PSUs/ GoI PSUs or GoI organizations, provided that they are operating in power sector or own canal systems, i.e. are into irrigation.
  2. Scheme Manager: The Scheme manager on behalf of MNRE would be Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) under the MNRE. SECI will handle funds to be made available under the scheme on behalf of GOI, for which they will be provided service charge of 1% of the funds handled/ routed through them.
  3. Mode of Operation of Scheme: The solar PV power plants will be developed by the State Power Generation Companies/ State Government Utilities/ any other State Government Organization/ PSUs/ GoI PSUs or GoI organizations, provided that they are operating in power sector or own canal systems, i.e. are into irrigation. The Scheme manager on behalf of MNRE would be Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) under the MNRE. The Implementing Agency will submit the application / proposal for setting up Grid-connected Solar PV Power Plants on Canal Banks/ Canal Tops to MNRE. MNRE/SECI will analyze/ scrutinize the application/ proposal and if found appropriate, MNRE will sanction the project, including the ones in project mode made during 2014-15. Thereafter, SECI shall release the capital subsidy of upto Rs. 3cr./MW for Canal Top SPV projects and Rs.1.5 cr/MW for Canal Bank SPV Projects.

4.73 Central Financial Assistance (CFA)

  • Rs.3 crore/MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower, for Canal Top SPV projects and Rs.1.5 crore/MW or 30% of the project cost, whichever is lower, for Canal Bank SPV projects.
  • CFA of upto Rs.225 crore for 100 MW (50 MW on Canal Tops and 50 MW on Canal Banks) to be disbursed over a period of maximum 2 years post sanctioning of the plants as under:

- upto 40% on sanctioning of the projects.

- 60% on successful commissioning of the projects.

  • Service charge to SECI @1%: Rs.2.25 crore.

Current Status (as on 31.12.2015)

4.74 Based on the requests received from various States for allocation of canal-top/ canal-bank solar power projects under the “Pilot-cum-demonstration project for development of grid connected solar PV power plants on canal banks and canal tops”, In-Principle approval given for setting up full targeted capacity of 50 MW canal-top and 50 MW canal-bank solar PV power projects, as given in Table 4.5 and Table 4.6.

4.75 CFA of Rs.69.0 crore already released to SECI for onward disbursal to Project Implementing Agencies of the respective States. Further CFA of Rs.159 crore

Table 4.5 State-wise Allocation of 50 MW Canal-Top Solar PV projects

Sl. No.

State

Implementing Agency in the State

Capacity for which in- principle approval has been given (MW)

1

Andhra Pradesh

New and Renewable Energy Development Corporation of Andhra Pradesh (NREDCAP)

1 MW canal-top

2

Gujarat

Sardar Sarovar Narmada NigamLimited (SSNNL) 10 MW canal-top

3

Karnataka

Krishna Bhagya Jala NigamLimited (KBJNL) 10 MW canal-top

4

Kerala

Kerala State Electricity BoardLimited (KSEB) 2 MW canal-top

5

Punjab

Punjab Energy DevelopmentAgency (PEDA) 20 MW canal-top

6

Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited 1 MW canal-top

7

Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh Irrigation Department 6 MW canal-top

Table 4.6 State-wise Allocation of 50 MW Canal Bank Solar PV Projects

Sl. No. State Implementing Agency in the State Capacity for which in- principle approval has been given (MW)
1 Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Power Generation Corporation Limited (APGENCO) 5 MW canal-bank
2 Gujarat Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) 15 MW canal-bank
3 Kerala Kerala State Electricity Board Limited (KSEB) 1 MW canal-bank
4 Uttarakhand Uttarakhand Jal Vidyut NigamLimited 19 MW canal-bank
5 West Bengal West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Limited (WBSEDCL) 10 MW canal-bank
Total 50 MW canal-bank

(including service charges of SECI) to be released through SECI in 2015-16 and2016-17.

Batch II 15000 MW Grid-connected Solar PV Power Plants through NTPC Ltd.

4.76 The Cabinet has approved the Implementation of Scheme for setting up of 15,000 MW of Grid-connected Solar PV Power projects under National Solar Mission through NTPC Ltd./ NVVN in three tranches as follows :

Tranche-I : 3,000 MW: 2014-15 to 2016-17
Tranche-II : 5,000 MW: 2015-16 to 2017-18
Tranche-III : 7,000 MW: 2016-17 to 2018-19

4.77 In Tranche-I, which is part of Batch-II of Phase-II of National Solar Mission, 3000 MW capacity of solar PV power plants will be based on bundling of solar power (3000 MW) with unallocated thermal power (1500 MW) in the ratio of 2:1 (in MW terms), for which the required 1500 MW unallocated thermal power has been made available by the Ministry of Power.

3000 MW GRID CONNECTED SOLAR PV POWER PROJECTS UNDER NSM PHASE-II, BATCH-II, TRANCHE-I – ‘STATE SPECIFIC BUNDLING SCHEME’

Mechanism for implementation

4.78 The mechanism of operation of 3,000 MW capacity Solar PV plants under Tranche-I of Batch-II of Phase-II of NSM, is as follows:

  1. a The eligible plant capacities will be minimum 10 MW and maximum may be fixed for each State lot of projects.
  2. The bidding will be State specific and conducted through e-bidding.
  3. It will be based on fixed levelised tariffs. The developers will submit bids quoting a fixed levelised tariff for the entire project duration of 25 years.
  4. There will be State specific tenders. The selection of bids will be done based on the tariff quoted by the bidders. Selection will be based on lowest quoted levelised tariffs. The tariff bid cannot be higher than the Applicable Tariff on the day bids are received as may be fixed by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC) for the State where the projects are to be set up/ Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC).
  5. The bidders will be free to avail fiscal incentives like Accelerated Depreciation, Concessional Customs and Excise Duties, Tax Holidays, etc. as available for such projects. The same will not have any bearing on comparison of bids for selection.
  6. fNTPC Ltd. will purchase the Solar Power generated from the selected Solar PV plants at the quoted tariffs and Thermal Power at the Tariff as determined by CERC as per Regulations from time to time for power from the respective Thermal Power Plant from which power is allocated. NTPC Ltd. will bundle the Solar Power with unallocated Thermal Power from Coal based stations of NTPC Ltd. on 2:1 basis (2 MW of Solar with 1 MW of Thermal), and sell the Bundled Power to willing State Utilities under 25 years Power Sale Agreements (PSAs), at Weighted Average Tariff of the Solar and Thermal components plus Trading Margin of Paisa Seven (7) per kWh. The weighted average tariff will be separately calculated for each State for the solar Power.
  7. Excess power whether generated in normal course or through repowering will be purchased at a notional support price of Rs.3/kWh only. It will be at the

option of the developer to offer it (excess power) to NTPC/ NVVN or sell in open market. Further, the developer will be free to sell power to any one for period beyond 25 years of firm PPA offered by NTPC Ltd.

Current Status (as on 31.12.2015)

4.79 Based on the requests received from various States for allocation of solar power under the 3000 MW State Specific Bundling Scheme under NSM Phase-II, Batch-II, the following State-wise allocations have been made:

Sl. No.

State/ UT

Capacity allotted in OPEN category (MW)

Capacity allotted in Domestic Content Requirement (DCR) category (MW)

Whether in Solar Park on not?

Total Capacity allotted (MW)

1

Andhra Pradesh

1050

200

Solar Park

1,250

2

Karnataka

500

100

Solar Park

600

3

Rajasthan

550

100

420 MW in Solar Park; 230 MW outside solar park

650

4

Telangana

350

50

Outside Solar Park

400

5

Uttar Pradesh

100

00

Outside Non Solar Park

100

TOTAL

2550

450

3,000

Tendering Status (as on 31.12.2015)

4.80 Tenders for 2750 MW capacity project allotted to Andhra Pradesh (1000 MW- all in solar park), Rajasthan (420 MW in solar park, 230 MW outside solar park), Uttar Pradesh (100 MW outside solar park), Karnataka (600 MW in solar park) and Telangana (400 MW outside solar park) have been issued by NTPC Ltd.

4.81 For 850 MW capacity solar PV projects in solar park in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh, bidding has been completed and the lowest bids of Rs. 4.63/unit have been received.

Total Capacity tendered till date : 2750 MW including 400 MW DCR
Capacity tendered in Solar Park : 2020 MW;
Capacity tendered outside Solar Parks : 730 MW
 

10,000 MW GRID-CONNECTED SOLAR PV POWER PLANTS THROUGH NTPC LTD.

4.82 NTPC limited has set a target for setting up 10,000 MW of solar power projects by FY 2021-22. These plants would be owned by NTPC Limited and NTPC Limited would be awarding contracts for EPC for these plants. Some capacity out of this 10,000 MW capacity would be under DCR category (solar cells and modules will have to be procured from domestic manufacturers) while the balance would be under OPEN category. As of now, NTPC Ltd. has identified States/ locations for setting up 6030 MW solar PV power projects as given in Table 4.7 and is in consultation with various State Governments for setting up the balance solar PV power capacity.

Sl. No.

State/ UT

Capacity (MW) and Location

1

Andhra Pradesh (1000 MW)

250 MW; (50 MW x 5 Projects); DCR at Ananthapur

750 MW; (125 MW x 6 Projects); Open at Ananthapur

2

Rajasthan (1260 MW)

260 MW; (65 MW x 4 Projects) at Bhadla-II

1000 MW at Bhadla-III, IV

3

Madhya Pradesh (970 MW)

250 MW; (50 MW x 5 Projects)

720 MW; (220 at Morena and 500 at Chhatarpur)

4

Karnataka (1000 MW)

1000 MW; (Pavagada Solar Park)

5

Odisha (500 MW)

500 MW; (Balasore)

6

Telangana (500 MW)

500 MW; (Mehboobnagar Solar Park)

7

Gujarat (700 MW)

700 MW; (Banaskantha Solar Park)

8

Andaman & Nikobar (100 MW)

100 MW; (various locations)

TOTAL

6030 MW

Current Status (as of 31.12.2015

4.83 For 250 MW Solar PV power projects by NTPC Ltd. under DCR category, in Ananthapur Solar Park in Andhra Pradesh, award of projects to EPC contractors was done in April, 2015 and the commissioning for these projects is scheduled for April 2016 (200 MW) and October 2016 (50 MW). For 750 MW Solar PV power projects by NTPC Ltd. under DCR category, in Ananthapur Solar Park in Andhra Pradesh, tenders have been issued by NTPC Ltd. For 260 MW Solar PV power projects by NTPC Ltd. under DCR category, in Rajasthan and 250 MW Solar PV power projects by NTPC Ltd. under DCR category, in Madhya Pradesh, bidding and reverse auction process is over and award of projects is expected soon.

OFF GRID SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS

4.84 Under the Off-grid and Decentralized Solar Applications for the year 2015-16, the Ministry provides 30% subsidy on the cost of the system ranging from Rs. 21/- per watt peak to 120 /- depending upon the capacity of the modules and configuration of the solar photovoltaic systems /plants in General Category States in the country.

4.85 The Ministry is also providing subsidy of 40% of the capital cost limited to Rs. 160/Wp (LED based) up to 40 Watt peak & Rs. 100/Wp for system above 40 Wp limited to 300 Wp by individuals through NABARD, Regional Rural Banks and other Commercial Banks. For balance of the cost, the banks extend credit facility to the beneficiary at usual commercial rates. The 30% of the capital cost limited to Rs.45/- per watt peak for installing PV plants having capacity above 300 Watt Peak to 1 Kilo Watt peak. The RRBs and other Commercial Banks extended the loan for balance cost of the systems at normal interest rates. Regional Rural Banks and Commercial Banks are extending loans to the consumers and directly disbursing subsidy for solar home lighting

systems and small Capacity PV systems under the financing of Off-grid Solar Applications Programme in 19 States. Banks have extended loans for 1,08,000 solar lighting systems during the financial year 2014-15.

4.86 For installation of stand-alone SPV power plants by Central and State Government Bodies and their establishments in Special Category States and North East States and Islands the Ministry provides 90% subsidy ranging from Rs.72/- to Rs.396/- for off-grid solar PV applications.

4.87 To meet unmet community demand for electricity or in un-electrified rural areas, standalone SPV power plants with battery storage in a micro grid mode/ local distribution network, would be provided in the range of Rs.85 /Wp to Rs.115/Wp of capital subsidy.

4.88 For Solar Water Pumping system, the capital subsidy is ranges from Rs.27,630 per Hp to Rs.57,600 per Hp depending upon category and capacity.

4.89 The Ministry has taken up an ambitious programme for installation of 1,00,000 solar water pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water in different States of the country during 2014-15. Under the programme 65,436 Solar pumps will be installed through the State Govt. Agencies and 15330 pumps has been earmarked for community drinking water supply in collaboration with Ministry of Drinking water and sanitation. In addition 30,000 solar pumps will be installed through bank loan for irrigation purpose to individual farmers. The NABARD is the Nodal Agency for this scheme. Under the scheme Banks (Regional Rural Banks, Commercial Banks etc.) extended the loans at normal interest rates and subsidy component to the beneficiaries. 22,000 nos. of solar pumps have been sanctioned during 2015-16

4.90 A total of 72 MWp capacity solar PV off-grid systems/power plants have been sanctioned till Dec. 2015. Some of the major Off-grid Solar PV projects installed during 2015-16 are as follows:

  1. 17505 SPV Street Lighting Systems (LED) in 5835 Gram panchayats in Thirty Four Districts of Maharashtra.
  2. 97 no. of SPV Power Plants at police stations and base camps in the state of Chhattisgarh.
  3. 543 SPV Street lights (LED) in 193 Scheduled caste populated villages in twelve districts of Uttarakhand.
  1. 1400 nos. of SPV Power Pumps under Solar Pumping Programme for Irrigation and Drinking Water in the state of Gujarat and 6,000 Solar power packs for individuals in the State of Bihar.
  2. 167 no. of SPV Power Plants at CHC/PHC in the state of Chhattisgarh
  3. SPV Power Plants with aggregate capacity of 3030 kWp at various centers of Indian Space Research Organisation, Bengaluru.

5kWp SPV power plant at Primary Health Centre, Dhanbilas, Tripura

  1. 11218 no. of Solar Street lighting Systems (LED) in 1023 no. of Dr Ram Manohar Lohiya Samagra Villages in 35 districts of Uttar Pradesh
  2. 25000 no. of 37 Wp and 85000 no. of 100 Wp Solar home lighting systems in the state of Rajasthan.
  3. 7500 nos. of SPV Power Pumps under Solar Pumping Programme for Irrigation in the state of Rajasthan

4.91 During the year, the solar systems having total capacities of 67 MWp which includes solar lanterns, solar home lights, solar street lights, solar pumps, mini/micro grids and power plants were installed in various States. Some of the highlights of the completed projects during the financial current year are given below-

Table 4.8: Cumulative Systems installed up to 31.12.2015

SPV Systems

Cumulative up to 31.12.2015

Solar lanterns Nos

984103

Solar home lights Nos

1245621

Solar street lights Nos

384312

Solar pump Nos

36269

Power plants MWp

129

 

  • 8552 solar street lights have been installed at various villages of Himachal Pradesh.
  • 641 Solar power plants having total capacity of 2830 kWp have been installed at various places including industries in Chhattisgarh.
  • 12453 solar street lights have been installed at villages of Uttar Pradesh.
  • 69 Solar power plants having total capacity of 1738 kWp have been installed at various places in J&K.
  • 79 nos PHCs,13 nos of Sub Divisional Hospitals & 3 nos of District Hospitals of the State have been provided with Solar PV Power Plants of different capacities (5 kwp /10kWp /25 kWp ) for 24x7 uninterrupted Power supply to the essential facilities like Patients Ward, OT, Labour Room, Cold Chain System etc of the Hospitals .
  • Real time status of the SPV Power Plant are being monitored at TREDA Headqtrs through GSM based Remote Monitoring System. Works for left out hospitals have been undertaken & which will be completed by 2015

Table 4.9: State wise Cumulative achievement under Off Grid SPV programme as on 31.03.2015
State -wise Cumulative Installation of SPV Systems (31.03.15)
Solar Photovoltaic Systems

State/UT

Lanterns

Nos.

Home Lights

Nos.

Street Lights

Nos.

Pumps Nos.

Stand Alone

(KWp)

Andhra Pradesh

41360

22890

7812

613

2586.595

Arunachal Pradesh

14433

18945

1071

18

530.1

Assam

1211

6663

98

45

1210

Bihar

50117

7376

955

139

841.6

Chhattisgarh

3311

7254

2042

240

18116.72

Goa

1093

393

707

15

31.72

Gujarat

31603

9253

2004

85

10737.6

Haryana

93853

56364

22018

469

1327.25

Himachal Pradesh

33909

22592

24058

6

1375.5

Jammu & Kashmir

44059

65283

5806

39

4338.85

Jharkhand

23374

9398

620

0

480.9

Karnataka

7334

49632

2694

551

2463.41

Kerala

54367

40412

1735

810

849.39

Madhya Pradesh

9444

4002

9198

87

2521

Maharashtra

68683

3478

8420

239

1854.7

Manipur

4787

3900

928

40

812

Meghalaya

24875

7840

1273

19

423.5

Mizoram

9589

6801

431

37

890

Nagaland

6766

1045

271

3

1050

Odisha

9882

5232

5834

56

236.515

Punjab

17495

8626

5354

1857

1202

Rajasthan

4716

144564

6852

21603

9820

Sikkim

23300

15059

504

0

795

Tamil Nadu

16818

80056

25150

829

6881.6

Tripura

64282

32723

1199

151

365

Uttar Pradesh

62015

235834

170438

1516

6263.46

Uttarakhand

84023

91350

8568

26

628.03

West Bengal

17662

145141

8726

48

1126

Andaman & Nicobar

6296

468

390

5

167

Chandigarh

1675

275

898

12

730

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

0

0

0

0

0

Daman & Diu

0

0

0

0

0

Delhi

4807

0

301

90

571

Lakshadweep

5289

0

1725

0

1090

Puducherry

1637

25

417

21

40

Telangana

0

0

0

1833

Others

125797

24047

9150

0

23885

Total

969862

1126921

337647

29669

108074.44

Table 4.10: State wise SPV Systems installed during 2015-16 as on 31.12.2015
Systems installed

S. No.

State

Lanterns (no.)

Capacity (kWp)

Home systems/ packs (no.)

Capacity (kWp)

Street Lights (no.)

Capacity (kWp)

Power plants (no.)

Capacity (kWp)

Pumps (no.)

Sapacity (no.)

1

Andhra Pradesh

82

38

106

658

2

Arunachal Pradesh

11

70

3

Assam

43

11

49

366

4

Bihar

27

7

25

180

5

Chhattisgarh

500

500

641

2830

195

500

6

Delhi

31

698

7

Goa

1

1

8

Gujarat

58

2564

183

758

9

Haryana

363

82

43

974

74

212

10

Himachal Pradesh

4337

43

8552

633

19

137

11

Jammu & Kashmir

69

1738

12

Jharkhand

52

13

13

Karnataka

12

3

126

1205

14

Kerala

155

1476

15

Madhya Pradesh

14

4

180

13

27

155

16

Maharashtra

19

5

1873

1386

236

1947

12

43

17

Manipur

401

429

18

Meghalaya

4

1

67

431

19

Mizoram

1000

74

295

295

20

Nagaland

4200

311

1

50

21

Odisha

42

10

22

303

22

Punjab

5404

216

39

512

23

Rajasthan

24

510

5720

17160

24

Sikkim

6

40

25

Tamilnadu

9031

1064

184

5049

416

2082

26

Telangana

43

866

27

Tripura

3

17

28

Uttarakhand

9904

99

245

18

13003

962

25

749

29

Uttar Pradesh

75

19

12453

921

347

3005

30

West Bengal

191

51

30

561

31

Puducheery

3

81

32

Lakshadweep

11

1100

33

NABARD

108000

10800

Total

 

14241

142

118700

12626

46665

4516

3098

28997

6600

20755

BOX ITEM 4.1: OFF GRID SPV

SUCCESS STORY OF SOLAR COMMUNITY LIFT IRRIGATION SCHEMES IN C.G.

80% population of Chhattisgarh State is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture based small industries. The economy of the state is mainly based on agriculture and forestry. The agriculture sector contributes around 38% to the State’s Net Domestic Product. In this state agriculture is mainly done in rain fed conditions and variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects crops. Obviously, irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall development and therefore the state government has given top priority to development of irrigation potential.

Community Lift Irrigation Systems installed at Village Choraidand and Khatanga, Distt. Jashpur, Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh state consists of 27 districts, Jashpur is one of the backward districts of the state. It is situated in the North-eastern part of the State. Area of the district is 6088 sq Km. It is rich in forest resources and the majority of its Population belongs to the Scheduled Tribes. Land is mainly of two types, Balua soil in hilly region which is not fertile where mixed type of crop is grown, land in plain area is fertile. The main perennial rivers of the district are Lawa, Ib, Maini and Shankh. Climate of the district is very peculiar with upper areas much colder while lower region is warm. The climate here is moist as heavy rainfall occurs here. The average rainfall of the district is 1512.8 mm. Total irrigated area in Jashpur is 291497 hectare out of which 17812 hectare is net cropped area. As per official data, there are 41 minor irrigation system developed. There are many tiny & small stop dams proposed under various scheme which will bring more area under agriculture.

Ever since emergence of Jashpur as district, it was evident that it has great potential to deliver true sense of high economic value to the state and the country. To keep up to expectation, it was necessary to fill the critical gaps in the area of infrastructure development, livelihood promotion and other related activities. So, special scheme was required to meet the challenges ahead of tribal district Jashpur.

Considering all above mentioned facts CREDA (Chhattisgarh State Renewable Energy Development Agency) has formulated and completed two Solar Community Minor Lift Irrigation Schemes in villages Harradipa and Baghmudi of block Duldula of Jashpur District. In these Villages a large no. of farmers were not having any means of electricity for

 

Irrigation. In survey we found that there is approximately 130 acre land was continuously not irrigated in other seasons except rainy season because of lack of electricity. They were having only one-one borewell near thier agricultural lands in villages. But because of unavailability of electricity, the available bores were also not in use. Because of unavailability of continuous electricity farmers have no choice except to take only one crop that too in rainy season. For irrigation

they were dependent on diesel pumps for which they had to make lot of efforts to buy and bring diesel from distant places.

Under these Lift Irrigation Schemes two Solar Surface pumps one in each village are installed at common water source ie stop dams on perennial rivers. Committees of Farmers are formed for daily operation and maintenance of the pumps, which also controls scheduling and distribution of water among farmers. Farmers also contributed land for installation of Solar Pumps and construction of overhead tanks of 5 KL in each village.

The outcome of these projects so far is as under:

  • A total of about 30 Acres of farm land is being irrigated under this project.
  • A total of about 2 Lac. litres of water is given for irrigation per day in each village.
  • About 12 Nos. of families were benefitted with this project, which are now growing three crops like mustard, Paddy, Maize, Potato and other Vegetables etc.
  • The economy of these farmers is increased substantially as they don't have to pay for diesel for irrigation after installation of the Solar Pumps.
  • Training was given to farmers to handle troubleshooting related to pump sets.

The basic outlay of providing water supply to the farms is done by constructing a RCC tank, nearby to the solar pump which serves a total of 108 acres of farm land annually. A total of 16 panels (300 Watt) were installed, which is sufficient to run a 5 HP solar pump set.

Benefits and Impact of the Project

The impact of these kinds of projects on the villagers is immense. Earlier Mono-cropping was the usual practice but with the advent of this community based lift irrigation project, the farmers have started cultivating more crops annually. Since the topography and little options of irrigation facilities available to the farmers makes demand for these kinds of projects. This project has proved to be a boon for the poor farmers since enhances their productivity at a minimum cost and serves as a cleaner and greener option of irrigation.

Subsistence farming is a past and forgotten word for the farmers. This has really helped them to improve their standard of living.

SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS

4.92 A 100 LPD Solar Water Heating (SWH) System having 2 square meter of collector area, can replace an electric geyser of 2 KW capacity for residential use and may save upto 1,500 units of electricity and up to 1.5 tons of CO2 per year depending upon the location of installation.

4.93 The cumulative targets set for installing Solar Collector area under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), are 15 million square meters up to 2017 and 20 million square meter up to 2022 respectively. Under this, around 12 million square meter collector area has been installed by 31/12/2015 against the total target of 15 million square meters. Residential sector dominates among others and contributed around 85% of the total installations.

4.94 The gross potential for solar water heating systems in India has been estimated about 140 million sq. m. of collector area. However, we have achieved about 12 million sq.m. collector area. There is a lot of potential for Solar Water Heating Systems in the country.

4.95 Note: The subsidy Scheme of Solar Water Heating System has been discontinued w.e.f. 01.10.2014 onwards because the market of the Solar Water Heating System has reached a level to sustain with own technology and competency due to vigorous Research & Development and nation-wide publicity through print and electronic media. The Ministry is providing central financial assistance for research, design, development and demonstration programmes for solar water heating systems and in addition to that also for seminars, symposia, conference and skilled training.

4.96 The benchmark costs of various technologies are given below:

Sl. No.

Technology

Benchmark Cost (Rs/Sq.m)

1

Evacuated Tube Collectors

8,000

2

Flat plate collectors with liquid as working fluid

10,000

3

Flat plate collectors with air as working fluid

8,000

4

Solar collectors system for direct heating (Box type Cookers)

12,000

5

Concentrators with manual tracking (Dish Type Cookers)

7,000

6

Concentrators with single axis tracking, Non Imaging

18,000

7

Concentrators with double axis tracking

22,000

2000 LPD SWHS installed at Haryana Police Housing Corporation, Haryana.
9000 LPD SWHS at SIDCUL, Haridwar

1000 LPD SWH System at Hotel Rudrax, Kutchh, Gujarat.
6000 LPD SWH Systems at Meval Dharamshala, Palitana, Gujarat

4.97 MNRE is doing the accreditations for channel partners, through Credit Rating Agencies and empanelment of ETC manufacturers to facilitate the selling of SWH systems in different parts of the country. Presently, there are 82 accredited channel partners and 224 ETC empanelled manufacturers with MNRE. Ministry is also working on star rating for solar water heaters with Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). These provisions will be continued so that the customer gets quality product and the support available from MNRE for developing the entrepreneur and companies in this regard is available for further development of the sector.

4.98 BIS standards have been established for Flat Plate Solar Collectors (FPSC) along with appropriate test facilities. There are over 60 BIS approved manufacturers for producing solar water heating systems using FPSC. As a part of testing facilities network, besides MNRE R&D institute National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), there are Seven Regional Test Centres (RTCs) for certification and development testing at (i) Devi Ahiliya Vishawavidyalaya, Indore, (ii) University of Pune, (iii) Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, (iv) Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, (v) Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Sonepat (Haryana), (vi) Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh and recently started in (vii) Silchar, Assam.

4.99 Solar water heaters have become popular in Bengaluru, Pune and several other cities in Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Efforts are being made to extend the coverage to other States and cities too. Efforts are also being made to promote business models for increasing penetration and scaling up of solar energy and promoting solar water heating systems in various sectors including hotel, hospitals, industries and commercial establishments. Various central government Ministries, such as, Urban Development, Tourism, Defence, Railways, Textiles, Health, Food Processing Industries etc. have been approached for solar adoption of solar water heating systems as well as space heating and Solar Driers as part of the energy infrastructure under their respective sectors.

4.100 Extensive publicity and awareness campaigns are taken up through print and electronic media in a large number of cities in various States where potential for installation of solar water heating systems is high. Seminars, workshops and business meets are organized with different stakeholders to focus on accelerating solar water heater deployment in different sectors and potential cities in the country.

Solar Dryer and Space Heating

4.101 The MNRE has also initiated and taken positive steps and measures in the direction of applications of Solar Air Driers and Space Heating. Ministry has been working in close association with other Ministries, Institutions and agencies to develop the application of Solar Air Driers and Space Heating in various horticulture and animal husbandry produces. MNRE in cooperation with Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbiet (GIZ), is implementing a project on “Solar Thermal Solution for Space Heating in Ladakh (SolLad)”, in Ladakh Region. As part of this project, GIZ had already installed ten Pilot Solar Air Heating Systems in Leh District and is going to install another 60 such systems, 25 in Leh and 25 in Kargil respectively involving local state agencies and various other stakeholders.

70 kg Solar Dryer for apricot or fruits at Kargil.
Space Heating at Leh (J&K):
230 sq.m solar air heater for Dall processing at Theni, Tamil Nadu

OFF-GRID SOLAR THERMAL PROGRAMME

Deployment of the box and dish type solar cookers

Solar Cooking

4.102 Nearly 50% of the world’s Population cooks on open fires, and the task of gathering fuel wood falls almost entirely on women and children. Assuming that one family needs at least 3 kg fuel wood a day , it is not uncommon for those who live in regions with particularly sparse vegetation to spend more than 90 hours a month collecting fuel wood buying it can cost 40% of the family income; sometimes, it costs as much as the food to be cooked.

Solar kitchens of the future

4.103 The importance of solar cooker and their contribution to sustainability have often been underestimated. Even in the 21st century, nearly 50% of the worlds, population cooks on open fire, and the actual fuel consumption is seldom reflected in statistics because the source of that energy is fuel wood, other biomass, or cow dung. Relatively unknown fact is that smoke in kitchen is the world’s third largest killer. Fortunately, innovations in solar cooking and R&D in many related fields show that the future of solar energy is indeed bright. Solar cooker are now more widely acceptable; it is possible to achieve much more with parabolic and other improved solar cookers, which are quick, elegant, and user-friendly.

4.104 Skid-mounted solar steam system can be used during disaster relief operations. The cookers can also be adapted by cooks and caterers to cook hygienically, comfortably,

and quickly at such social functions as weddings where large–scale cooking is required. Continued development in terms of material and storage of heat keeps making solar cookers not only lighter, smaller, easier to handle, and more durable but also allows them to be used at night. Solar cookers should not be restricted only to rural areas, Small towns or large institutions and only for steam cooking; cities too could benefit from this technology. Solar steam system can be incorporated into green buildings and in multi-storeyed apartments by supplying piped steam or hot oil to kitchens, for pasteurizing drinking water, for bathing, for laundry, and for washing dishes. The technology can also be used for air conditioners based on vapor absorption chillers.

4.105 Solar cooker helps to improve livelihood of the rural poor and simultaneously conserve the natural environment (e.g. forests) and reduce emission of carbon dioxide. If 3% of Indians cook with solar energy, they would save 3.2 million tons of wood and reduce carbon dioxide emission by 6.7 million tons. Thus solar cooking can contribute immensely not only to stopping deforestation but also to improving the lives of people and protecting the environment. Realizing these possibilities, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been promoting solar cookers in India since its inception. Earlier, it was the box solar cooker that was promoted but later efforts have included parabolic solar concentrators (SK 14) for domestic cooking Scheffler community solar cookers and solar steam cooking system.

4.106 Solar box cookers works on the principle of heat trapping. The cookers consist of well-insulated box that has a single glass sheet or a double – glazed glass sheet as cover. The lid, which has a mirror on the inside, can be opened to reflect additional light into the box through the glazed covers to intensify incident radiation or closed to improve the box insulation. The box can hold 3-4 container in which foods can be boiled, steamed, or baked at temperature up to 150°C. Since the water in the food does not heat up beyond 100°C, temperature inside a loaded solar cooker is always lower. Standard models with aperture areas of about 0.25 sq.m are the rule for a family of 4-5 but larger versions measuring 1 sq.m and more are also available.

The advantage of solar box cookers:

  • Both diffuse and direct solar radiation is used.
  • Several vessels can be heated at one time.
  • Can be used as an oven.
  • The device is light, portable, and easy to handle and operate.
  • Nutritional value of food is preserved because of low cooking temperature.
  • The food can be kept warm until the evening.

4.107 However the box cooker also has also some limitation:

  • Cooking is limited to day light hours.
  • Moderate temperatures make for long cooking time (1-2 hours)
  • Cannot be use for grilling and frying or for making Chapattis, etc.
  • Considerable heat is lost through the glass cover.

4.108 The number of solar cookers has been sold/ distributed 7 lakhs (approx.) so far. Although, the most cost effective device, the cooker has not been widely used because of its limitation as mentioned above. Besides, the other type of solar cooker also known and used in India.

Dish Type Solar Cooker

4.109 Dish type solar cooker has generally 1.4-1.5m (approx.) in reflector area and a thermal output of 600 Watt (approx.). The size is suitable for cooking for 10-15 and the model sells for about Rs. 6500 to Rs.7500. The deeper dish ensure that the cooking vessel is well inside, which makes for greater safety. The vessel supports are made of Steel/Aluminum is the one of most cost-effective solar cooker in terms of its price and output.

Technical parameters

  • Reflector diameter /focal length: 140 cm / 28 cm (approx..).
  • Dish area: 1.51 M2 ( approx.).
  • Power output: 600 W.
  • Focus temperature: up to 200°C -250°C.
  • Tracking interval: 20-25 min (approx.)

Advantages

  • Cooks faster than the box cooker : 45 munities compared to 1-2 hours
  • High temperature allows Frying, roasting, and baking
  • Long tracking interval
  • High efficiency
  • Easy for transportation and can be assemble by users on the spot (illustrated instruction manual supplied with the kit)

4.110 Dish type solar cooker is customized device, it can provide as per demand of customers. However, different size and capacity or model can be used for cooking for small community. The dish can be placed outside in a south facing balcony and the cooking vessel can be closer to the balcony outside the focal point.

Fuel saving

4.111 The amount of fuel that can be saved by switching to a solar cooker depends largely on family size, the amount and type of food cooked, and frequency of use. The frequency depends on the daily routine of the family, including the time at which the family dines. However, experience and feedback from users have shown that a family can expect to save 3-4 cylinders of LPG (45-60 kg) a year. Besides saving money, the solar cooker reduces CO2 emissions- a major contributor to global warming-into the atmosphere. Yearly reductions in emissions are estimated at 156-208 kg for each cooker if LPG is saved and about 3 tons if fuel wood is saved and when the cooker is also used for other purposes such as to boil water for drinking and to heat bath water. Lastly, solar cooker also leads to other benefits: for instance, the time spent on

gathering fuel wood can be better spent on such potentially income-generating activities as baking cakes and biscuits and roasting nuts.

Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) Technologies for Community Cooking, Process Heat and Cooling applications

4.112 India is running the largest renewable capacity expansion programme in the world. The government is aiming to increase share of clean energy through massive thrust in renewable. The Ministry is implementing a National Programme on Solar Thermal aimed at peak shaving, conservation of electricity and fossil fuels and providing a clean, non-polluting solution to meet the process heat requirement in industrial, institutional and commercial sectors. Various promotional incentives in the form of capital subsidy or soft loan are available for solar concentrator projects under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM). The web-site of the Ministry www.mnre.gov.in may be visited for information about the National Programme and the Guidelines for Off-Grid and Decentralized Solar Applications under JNNSM.

4.113 The industrial & commercial sector is the second largest energy using in India after the residential sector. It is estimated that of the total fuel consumption in India, 15 to 20% is consumed by industries for low & medium heat processes ranging from 60°C to 250°C. The heat requirement is met by burning conventional fuels such as coal, furnace oil, natural gas and electricity. Use of solar concentrator technology integrated with system process heat demand can help replace/reduce conventional fuels which in turn will help reduce GHG emissions.

4.114 Four types of concentrating solar technologies are presently in promotion for the purpose of process heat applications. These are

  1. Fixed focus E-W automatically tracked elliptical dishes (Scheffler dish)
  2. Single axis tracked parabolic trough concentrators & Linear Fresnel Reflectors
  3. Dual axis fully tracked Paraboloid/ Fresnel Reflector based dishes and
  4. Non-Imaging Concentrators

4.115 The systems are being installed through State Nodal Agencies/ accredited private channel partners as per technical specifications laid down by MNRE and the support has provided on the reimbursement basis after the commissioning and performance monitoring of the systems.

4.116 For promotion of CSTs, support up to 30% of the system cost subject to certain benchmarks is available under off-grid scheme of JNNSM. Higher support of 60% is available in special category states. In addition some support is available under following UNDP and UNIDO -GEF CSH projects being implemented by the Ministry.

  • UNDP-GEF supported project on “Market Development & Promotion of Solar Concentrator based Process Heat Applications in India” and,
  • UNIDO-GEF project on promoting business models for increasing penetration and scaling up of solar energy”.

4.117 Details of the support available from various sources for installation of CSTs are given in Table 4.11.


Table 4.11: Financial support available from various sources for installation of CSTs

Available support
MNRE
30% of benchmark costs as subsidy. In special category states/ districts e.g J&K, Himachal, Uttarakhand, N-E region, island and districts with intenational border, 60% subsidy is available to non- profit making bodies. In addition accelerated depreciation (80% in 1st year) is available to profit making bodies.
MNRE
15% of the MNRE benchmark cost to a maximum of Rs 75 Lakhs. For space cooling projects where new VAM is installed further 10% support is available for maximum 5 projects. Projects in ESCo mode get 10% more over and above this to a maximum of Rs. 15 lakhs. For Leh- Ladakh region, being a difficult area, the support for all types of CST based projects (except direct cooking) is available to the extent of 20% of approved project cost irrespective of size.
UNIDO

A financial package is being developed by the GEF-MNRE-UNIDO project in partnership with IREDA to provide loans at reduced rate of interest (up to 45% of the project cost) and a bridge loan (up to 30% of the project cost) so that 75% of funds are available to project beneficiaries who contribute 25% of own equity to the project in the beginning.

The project also plans to provide technical assistance to cover the cost of preparation of Detailed Project Reports including detailed integration engineering to innovative projects for heating/cooling applications in the industrial processes.

4.118 During 2015-16, a number of activities were undertaken by the Ministry and also under UNDP & UNIDO GEF projects which are highlighted as below:

4.119 Around 25 Numbers of systems with 5266 sq. m. of CST area were also completed during the year 2015-16 making a total of 200 No’s of Systems with 45,000 Sq. m. of area installed so far in the country.

UNDP-GEF INITIATIVE

4.120 Under UNDP-GEF project, the major activities undertaken included the following:

  1. Organization of an ½ day International workshop on CSTs as part of 3 days Intersolar conference and exhibition held at Mumbai on 19th November, 2015,
  2. Organizing 2 days Residential workshop on CSTs for the officials of State Nodal Agencies of Ministry at Mount Abu,
  3. Award of assignments on (a) ‘’Preparation of 800 preliminary reports on possible installation of CST based projects in 20 selected States of Country’’; (b) “Development and implementation of a Communication Strategy aimed at public relation activities about CSTs”
  4. Development of booklets on material and component specifications of various types of CSTs,
  5. Publishing of 4 issues of SUNFOCUS magazine and 12 nos. of electronic newsletter,
  6. Organizing 10 workshops and 2 training programmes for potential beneficiaries, bankers and technicians,
  7. Making on-line performance monitoring of field projects mandatory,

  1. Sanctioning of one project in ESCo mode and 31 as normal demonstration & replication projects with 9300 sq. m. of area and,
  2. Getting 8 numbers of five year old systems repaired through financial support from CSHP on 50% cost sharing
  3. Issuing of loan scheme at priority lending rates by 2 banks; State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur and Union Bank of India.
4.121 First time in the country, an International workshop on Concentrated Solar Technologies (CSTs) for medium and high temperature applications was organized by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) under the banner of its UNDP–GEF CSH Project on 19th November 2015 at Mumbai as part of Intersolar India Exhibition and Conference 2015.
International workshop on CST's at Mumbai as part of
Intersolar India Conference 2015.

4.122 The workshop focussed on the use of CSTs for meeting the heat requirements in industrial, institutional, and commercial establishments for the purpose of process heat, community cooking, space cooling, and laundry applications. The establishments include industries like textile, dairy, auto, pharmaceutical, hospitals and hotels, religious bodies, and institutions, e.g., hostels, paramilitary units, prisons, etc. Over 100 delegates from various parts of the country and abroad participated in the workshop. Speakers in the Technical session and Expert panel for the plenary sessions included members from various International and Indian Institutes as well as Industry.

4.123 The first workshop for senior officials of State Nodal Agencies (SNAs) and other government departments was organized in October 2015 to boost and showcase installation of CST based systems for community cooking, laundry, process heat, and space cooling applications in the country. The two-day residential workshop was held at Mount Abu during October 8–9, 2015 and was co-organized by UNDP-GEF CSH Project of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) along with CST Awareness cum
International workshop on CST's at Mumbai as part of
Intersolar India Conference 2015.

Training Centre established by the World Renewal Spiritual Trust (WRST)

4.124 Thirteen states were represented by senior officials from respective SNAs and other government bodies. All states shared their current status of CST developments, as well as challenges and plans for the future. Key actions were defined which have to be followed up by the identified bodies. Workshop created an interactive, informative, and conclusive platform for sharing and discussing various support available from MNRE, UNDP-GEF assisted CSH Project and updates on new developments, challenges and opportunities from all CST stakeholders, such as beneficiaries, manufacturers, installers, and policymakers.

4.125 The field project supported under the project included an assignment on Market Development of CST based systems in the Industrial Sector was undertaken which has resulted in develop information packages for 4 selected industries (Automobile, Textile, Food Processing and Chemical) providing mapping of their industrial processes & possible intervention of CSTs. Ready to use financial instrument for industries to understand economic feasibility of CSTs have developed for the benefit of potential beneficiaries, organising CSTs workshops with SNAs/Manufacturers in various potential sectors for generation of proposals. This make a total of 28 Demonstration and 43 Replications projects with 21,150 sq. m. of CST area supported under CSHP against a goal of 45,000 sq. m. in 90 establishments. In addition 8 Non-functioning systems have also been supported having an area of 3,090 sq.m.

4.126 The demonstration projects have been on newer technologies and newer applications e.g Milk pasteurization, Medicine preparation, Metal phosphating, Flavouring of tobacco leaves, Waste water evaporation, Bleaching of cotton etc. Replication projects were on technologies already in promotion. First time one project has been supported in ESCo mode at Ordinance factory, Nagpur on community cooking. Projects on better technologies with heat storage & lesser space requirement were also developed under the project. Table 4.12 showed the break wise CST applications and area supported under CSH project.

Table 4.12: Projects supported under CSHP

Demonstration

Application

Number of Project

Collector Area (Sq. m)

Process Heat

23

9,890

Space Cooling

3

2,866

Cooking

2

2,064

Sub Total

28

14,820

Replication & other projects

Process Heat

11

1,923

Cooking

32

4,407

Sub Total

43

6,330

Repair & Renovation projects

Space Cooling

1

1,250

Cooking

7

1,840

Sub Total

8

3,090

Grand Total

79

24,200

4.127 A large number of knowledge documents have also developed in the project to help generating proposals by various stakeholders. These include video films and case studies on showcase projects, monthly newsletter (electronic), Toll free helpline, quarterly magazine on CSTs ‘’SUNFOCUS” and dedicated website www.cshindia.in besides setting up of Test set ups (both mobile & immobile) for CSTs at University of Pune and National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon, first time in country rather in Asia.

4.128 A training cum awareness centre on CSTs has also been established with Brahmakumaris at Mount Abu for the purpose of creating awareness among various groups of stakeholders from industries, institutions & commercial establishments and also help developing the capacity building of manufacturers/ entrepreneurs on various aspects of technologies.

4.129 Booklets on material and component specifications of various types of CSTs have also been published which will act as reference document for maintaining quality of CST based systems in the field by manufacturers.

4.130 To accelerate generation of CSTs proposals, 800 preliminary reports on possible installation of CST based projects are under preparation in 20 selected States through 2 Consultants ; one for North-West and other for South-Central region. These are expected to be completed in February. Reports will be made available to manufacturers and SNAs for approaching the beneficiaries to generate proposals.

4.131 Business developers of Manufacturers & SNAs are being supported with financial incentive on generation of minimum number of proposals in a year. Meeting with concerned authorities of tribal schools in Odisha & Jails in UP were organized for developing proposals on steam cooking.

UNIDO-GEF INITIATIVES

4.132 UNIDO- GEF project started in January 2015 with the following initiatives during the year.

4.133 A meeting was organised on 24 June 2015 at Shimla with the representatives from Cold Storages, jointly by MNRE, HimUrja and UNIDO to discuss the potential of CST application in Cold Storage Units. UNIDO announced its support to the development of the feasibility reports for both solar installations in the cold storages for which the Cold Storage Units in Himachal Pradesh should provide the details of their energy requirements so that a feasibility of CST systems could be assessed.

4.134 On 01 July 2015, ‘Interactive Meeting on Potential of Concentrating Solar Technologies’ was conducted under the project in Delhi. The meeting Chaired by Shri. Tarun Kapoor, Joint Secretary, MNRE served as the platform for introduction of GEF-MNRE-UNIDO project and its activities to the various groups of stakeholders in the CST sector including the manufacturers/suppliers of the CST systems. It was mentioned that the project is looking into opportunities to demonstrate the Concentrating Solar Thermal Technologies (CSTs) in the industrial sectors in India. With high diesel and furnace oil consumption in the Indian industrial units, this

project has a high importance for the sector as it will demonstrate energy savings through the use of solar energy

4.135 International exposure visit on CSTs: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) recently organised a seven-day study tour from 23 to 29 August to experience off grid thermal applications especially - concentrating solar technologies (CSTs) across various industries in Austria, Switzerland and Germany. The delegation consisted of all the stakeholders involved in the solar thermal sector of India, which included members from central government, SNAs, financial
The delegation visiting the cheese factory at Saignelégier in
Switzerland, as part of UNIDO exposure visit on CSTs

institution, academicians, and industry representatives. Joint Secretary, MNRE Shri Tarun Kapoor’s presence acted as a catalyst during the beginning of the study tour.

4.136 The study tour covered three industrial applications of solar thermal technologies which include a meat processing unit, brewery unit and dairy industry for cheese production. The technologies covered were flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors. It is important to note that all the three industries visited are part of the food processing sector. The main target of the study tour was the practical know how transfer in solar process heat between Europe and India.

4.137 The Secretary, MNRE chaired the National Workshop on the application/ integration of Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) Technologies in the Dairy sector in India on 12 October 2015 in New Delhi, which was inaugurated by the Secretary, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture.

4.138 Integration with the ongoing industrial process was recognized as an important aspect of the solar installations challenged by facts such as intermittent availability of solar energy. Presence of efficient heat storage can certainly help in reducing this gap; however, the size of storage depends on the economically viability of the integration. In addition to the presentation of many successful CST projects in the country, the financial incentives available for the promotion of CSTs were discussed. UNIDO announced that a new financing package is being developed with IREDA to further promote these technologies for industrial applications including the dairy sector.

4.139 A follow-up meeting was held at National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Anand on 20 November 2015 with several representatives from the diary sector to expedite the process of application of solar thermal technology to dairy processes for fuel savings. The thermal energy requirements in the dairy sector range from pasteurization, spray drying and other cleaning purposes. It was decided that NDDB shall act as the nodal agency for the implementation of CST projects at the dairies

using the support available from MNRE, UNDP and UNIDO. NDDB has already sent to MNRE a list of potential projects in dairies.

4.140 UNIDO is organising a series of 6 awareness workshops in the first quarter of 2016 in the states of Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh to sensitize the industry clients about the benefits of CST technologies. Participation is invited by the industry clusters and cluster associations along with SNAs

Discussing CST Technology in Dairy Sector at
NDDB, Anand on 20th November 2015.

and national industry associations. The first two workshops held at Haridwar (Uttarakhand) on 12 January 2016 and at Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) on 21 January 2016 generated great interest in the CST systems among the industry participants who have started sending their expressions of interest for the CST projects.

4.141 Some of the field projects sanctioned by the Ministry and additionally supported under UNDP-GEF project during the year are as below:

Cairn India (P) Ltd using Scheffler based CST system for waste water evaporation

4.142 Cairn India is a part of the Vedanta Group operates ~27% of India's domestic crude oil production. While Exploration several thousands of gallons of waste water is generated which is contaminated with oil and minerals which cannot be thrown in the desert or river basins, this was a major issue and they needed a solution for speedy thermal evaporation. They however make use Solar Ponds to evaporate this water.

4.143 After analysing several options and in order to find a solution for expediting evaporation process they decided to go for a solar thermal based waste water evaporation on pilot scale. Scheffler based CST system was installed at Barmer site in Rajasthan, using 8 Nos of Parabolas of 32 Sq.m with collector area of 256 Sq.m The system installed by for evaporating 10,000 liters of waste water per day. The system was commissioned in April 2015 by M/s Taylor made Solution, Ahmedabad.
Scheffler based CST system Installed at Cairn India, Rajasthan.

4.144 The waste water is electrically pumped on a metal open tray coated with marine grade paint. The water is further made to fall by gravity on the receivers of the

concentrated solar thermal that have temperatures in excess of 1000°C. The falling water on the receivers will start evaporating and the rest of the water which will not evaporate is heated up. The heated water sent in the nearby Solar Pond and the cycle is repeated continuously.

4.145 To control the flow of water, a level indicator with a controller is installed, to make the process completely automatic. The project is running without any problems since its inception and following the successful pilot Cairn India is planning for bigger size projects.

4.146 The total investment in this pilot project was little over Rs.60 lakh and was self-funded. The applicable capital subsidy from Ministry and additional support under the UNDP-GEF was also availed that has helped in improving the economics. Cairn India is one of the largest independent oil and gas exploration and production companies in India with a market capitalisation of ~ US$ 7 billion.

PSG Hospital using Parabolic Trough Concentrators based CST system for laundry application

4.147 PSG Hospitals, Coimbatore have been recently credited with green hospital award from Association of Healthcare Providers India Limited (AHPI) for their contribution towards their renewable energy use, energy management and for implementing several other green processes. One of the projects to have implemented is a 100 Sq.m parabolic trough concentrated (PTC) solar thermal system for supplementing steam to their drying processes in laundry at an estimated
PTC based CST system installed at PSG Hospital, Tamil Nadu
cost of close to 23 lakh. The conventional method used for drying was through two numbers of 120 kVA diesel generators hybridized with electric heating. Approved CST manufacturer M/s Greenera Energy India Pvt. Ltd., Coimbatore who commissioned the system carried a detailed analysis of the operation of the laundry process from the point they receive the clothes from the hospital wards till it is ready for dispatch. They studied the pattern of energy usage annually and the fuel used for meeting the heating demands. Based on their investigation they suggested the use parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) seamlessly hybridised with electric boiler for supplying the steam for drying process. The solar thermal has resulted in complete elimination of one diesel generator besides the other system is only used during when demand rises. In the first phase they put up a 50 Sq.m parabolic trough collector during September 2014. The results were encouraging and the second phase of 50 Sq.m was recently completed in February 2015. According to beneficiary, they stated that 200 litres per day the diesel consumption has come down to 64 litres when bright sunlight is available. PSG Hospitals authority claim to have achieved savings worth 1

lakh per month and they estimate the system to pay back within 2 years after accounting for the central government subsidy and additional UNDP support.

Fresnel Reflector based CST systems installed in Salem district Cooperative Milk for milk pasteurization at Salem, Tamil Nadu & Hero Moto at Neemrana, Alwar, Rajasthan for cooking application

4.148 The ARUN® dish is a Fresnel paraboloid solar concentrator with a point focus. It can handle various heat transfer fluids including steam, hot oil, hot water or even hot air at temperatures up to 350°C and pressures up to 25 bar. The low area required for installation makes it ideal for industries with space constraints.

4.149 Currently there are 3 variants of the ARUN®-dish: ARUN®160, ARUN®100 & ARUN®30. Salem Dairy has commissioned two nos. of ARUN®160 dishes each 169 m2 on its rooftop supplied by Clique Solar Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai for meeting the heating requirements of milk pasteurization.

4.150 The system is integrated with the existing boiler which generates

CST systems installed for milk pasteurization at
Salem, Tamil Nadu

steam for pasteurization of milk during day time and beneficiary stated that more than 130 liters of furnace oil is expected to be saved per day by the application of solar process heating and investment will payback within 4 years after accounting for the capital subsidy and the additional benefit under the GEF-UNDP project.

4.151 ARUN®100 CST system has been recently installed in Hero MotoCorp Ltd, at Neemrana Campus for cooking and hot water application. The system delivers steam at 2 Kg /sq.m for heating water to meet the requirement of cooking and the project is expected to save 16,000-20,000 SCM /annum of Natural Gas.

CST systems for cooking and water heating installed at Hero Moto Corp Limited, Neemrana, Rajasthan

Goodricke Group Ltd, Instant Tea Plant at Aibheel, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal and TTK Prestige Ltd, Roorkee, Uttarakhand using Non Imagine Concentrator based CST system

4.152 Compound Parabolic Concentrator – CPC is an intermediate technology which combines Evacuated Tube Collector and limited concentration could provide pressurized hot water or thermal oil in the intermediate temperature range of Delta T .

(rise in temp) 60 to 120 C and it will work both on sunny day and diffused radiation date. Sun Best, an organization nominated for ASHDEN UK International Award 2015 is a channel partner of MNRE for CST mainly on Non imaging concentrators. They installed CPC based CST systems in two different locations in Northern & Western regions TTK Prestige at their cooker factory in Roorkee had installed 60 CPC collectors of area around 200 Sq.m which is used to provide process hot water of 90O C. The system is expected to save 18,112 litres of diesel with a payback period of around 2.5 years. The factory is happy about its performance and may opt for one more unit.

Goodricke, market leaders in tea in west Bengal and Assam needs hot water above 90OC for processing instant tea powder at their factory in Aibheel near Jalpaiguri. The 695 Sq.m CPC system is installed and

CPC System Installed in TTK Prestige Factory at Roorkee, Uttarakhand.
CPC System Installed at Jalpaiguri, West Bengal

expected to save 169 tons of coal with a payback period of around 3 years.

4.153 These kinds of units are very much suitable for industries like tannery, washing/degreasing plant in automobiles and other machinery making industry, chemical industry, food processing, textile industry and other industrial process heat.

Implementation of Solar Thermal systems in Kargil under the ‘Ladakh Renewable Energy Initiative’ scheme of MNRE

The Kargil Renewable Energy Development Agency (KREDA) has been implementing various renewable energy programmes in Kargil. One of the programmes is the solar thermal scheme. The scheme has been launched especially to accelerate widespread use of solar thermal systems for heating, cooking and steam generating applications, as well as to bring into use the solar passive techniques in building design. Introduction of the various solar thermal systems in Kargil will surely reduce / conserve the consumption of conventional energy through saving of electricity and fossil fuels in local and commercial buildings.

Following Solar thermal systems have been promoted under the LREI programme in Kargil:

  1. Solar Evacuated Tube Collector (ETC) based water heating systems.
  2. Solar Green House for vegetable production during autumn and winter.(CGH).
  3. Solar Dish Type Cooker.

Water Heating System:

The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, GoI, has sanctioned 10,000 sqm collector areas to be covered in Kargil under water heating system. As per direction from MNRE, KREDA has been installing the systems on subsidy basis:

- 60% off for residential use.

- 90% off for Govt. buildings and

- 40% off for commercial buildings.

ETC based solar water heating system has been found to be very useful in Kargil, especially in winter months when the temperature falls tremendously. Hot water is required for all domestic purposes such as bathing, washing, cleaning and cooking etc. ETC based water heating systems installed in houses in Kargil using Solar Energy as fuel for heating water can save a significant amount of fuel apart from improving the quality of life of the beneficiary and reducing the environments pollution. The demand for SWH system is rising day by day.

Solar Water Heating Systems Installed in Kargil

Solar Green Houses:

The best and the most favourable solar thermal system among the beneficiaries of Solar Thermal components is the Solar Green House. The villagers in Kargil typically grow vegetables in open fields and are constantly plagued by pests and disease. Moreover, the season for growing vegetable is very limited. During the winter season mercury drops even to -30 degree Celsius in Kargil and adjacent places, this makes cultivation impossible. Introduction of green house technology in Kargil through KREDA is such a step which has helped the local people to a large extant.

KREDA has so far constructed 3250 nos. of green houses in Kargil. The demand for green house, especially for commercial green house, in Kargil is so high, that the sanctioned nos. of green houses couldn’t meet the demand, and the agency has submitted a new proposal for green houses in MNRE.

KREDA is also helping the green house beneficiaries and other members from different villages in understanding the sustainable development through renewable sources of energy. KREDA is working in Kargil-Main, Northern Zone Kgl, TSG-Central Kargil and Zanskar region to increase incomes and promote food security through smallholder production (through green houses) and employment generation among the people.

Solar steam cooking/Direct Cooker:

KREDA has also some direct cooking and steam cooking systems already sanctioned by the MNRE under its ST Scheme. The agency will be installing the demonstration plants soon. Training for beneficiaries of Solar Thermal systems & for other public as well. KREDA has been trying its best to achieve a remarkable growth in the contribution of solar thermal renewable energy in the District.

For successful implementation of the programme and for big mass awareness regarding Solar Thermal Systems, KREDA has organised various training programmes in Zanskar & Kargil.

The participants were informed of various schemes of the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, GOI, especially Solar Thermal projects. Sanctioned schemes of the Ministry which are under implementation of KREDA were discussed.

Solar Green Houses Installed in Kargil

LADAKH RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCY

(LADAKH RENEWABLE ENERGY INITIATIVE)

Ladakh Renewable Energy Initiative was sanctioned by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt of India on the 1st June 2010. An amount of Rs. 32 Crs was allocated for the Solar Thermal Projects consisting of Solar Water Heaters, Solar Dish Cookers, Commercial and Domestic Greenhouses, Solar Community Cooking Systems.

Ladakh Renewable Energy Development Agency (LREDA) being the nodal agency of the ministry in Leh District of Jammu and Kashmir was given the responsibility of implementing the project.

Leh District is the northern most district of India sharing two international borders with China and Pakistan. Situated at an altitude of more than 11,000 ft this region is cut-off from the rest of the country for more than 6 months each year. Temperatures range from 30 degree to -30 Degree in this region. With extremely harsh climatic conditions any kind work can only be done in summers making 6 months of winters unproductive for any physical work.

Inspite of these hardships the highly dedicated team of LREDA has completed most of targets of the Project within the stipulated time.

PROJECTS

TARGET

ACHIEVED

Solar Water Heaters(100LPD)

6000

6,000

Solar Water Heaters(200&above)

14384

12,628

Commercial GH

250

250

Domestic GH

2500

2500

Dish Cooker

2250

2250

Steam Cooking

15

1 (balance to be completed by Oct 2016)

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has now enhanced the target to include additional 7500 units of Solar Water Heating Systems and 500 Commercial Greenhouses to be completed by December 2017.

Commercial Green House installed in district Leh, Ladakh
Solar Steam Cooking Systems installed in district Leh, Ladakh

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

4.154 Research and Development is a critical component of the National Solar Mission. Mission has endeavoured to accelerate ongoing R&D efforts on different aspects of Solar Photovoltaic and Solar thermal technologies, 2 including multi-disciplinary research, with the objective of improving the efficiency, systems performance and reducing the cost. A comprehensive policy for research & development has been put in place to achieve the objectives of cost reduction and efficiency enhancement. At present, 28 number of R&D projects are under implementation in area of solar photovoltaic (SPV) and solar thermal (ST) as given in Table 4.13. In line of above, Ministry has sanctioned setting up of 5 Centers of Excellence in Solar Energy which are as follows.

4.155 National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) at IIT Bombay in “Crystalline Si solar cells, education and training”: NCPRE was approved in September, 2010. Setting up of this centre was included in the Mission Policy document. This Centre is actively engaged in research and education in SPV. Various achievements are done in this project in terms of Facilities and Manpower, Education and Training and Majority of Research Deliverables are achieved. NCPRE faculty and students have resulted 110 Journal papers, 214 conference papers, 22 patents and 4 reports. 18 industry / NGO are members of NCPRE Industry Affiliate programme. Many industries are ready to take the patented technology of NCPRE. Ministry have given 1st awards for best R&D project on the occasion of the first Foundation Day of the Association of Renewable Energy Agencies of States (AREAS) on 27th August 2015 at Bengaluru, Karnataka. Now NCPRE-II and PUMP-IN proposal are under consideration/under recommendations in next phase of the Centre of Excellence.

4.156 Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Kolkata in “Thin silicon solar cells and photovoltaic systems”: In this Centre of Excellence, till date Single junction a-Si solar cells of area 1cm2 with initial efficiency of 8.4% developed with a degradation of 17% would reach a stabilized efficiency >7.5% which is the projected target. For HIT cells on n-type wafers, efficiency of 14% has been reached. Attempts are being made to improve passivation process, improve ITO/p interface. In case of photovoltaic systems, Super capacitor based Turbo Charger for Mobile Phones for Rural applications had been designed and developed and various battery research are going on. 7 journal papers and 15 conference papers have been published.

4.157 Amrita University, Kerala in “Education in Integrated Nanomaterial based Photovoltaic Storage Devices and Development of an Integrated panel Consisting of Photovoltaic (PV) cells and Nano-Structured Super Capacitor (SC) Cells (PVSC Panel)”: A project “Centre for Education in Integrated Nanomaterial-Based Photovoltaic-Storage Devices and Project on Development of an Integrated Panel consisting of Photovoltaic (PV) Cells and Nanostructured Thin Film Supercapacitors (SC) cells (PVSC Panel)” sanctioned to Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine, Kochi in 2010 and it has been completed in 2014. They fabricated of DSSC modules showing 3.8 % photo conversion efficiency is been initiated and they Storage integrated solar panels made for hand held devices. Now a proposal are under consideration in next phase of the Centre of Excellence.

4.158 Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT), Ahmedabad in “Area of solar passive architecture and green building technologies”: An initiative to Set up Centre for Excellence in area of Solar Passive Architecture and Green Building

Technologies” at CEPT University – Ahmedabad. CEPT has developed the Generation of database for Building Materials and Laboratory for testing building materials. This is a first kind of Laboratory in Asia for Green building. The project progress is good and achieving the defined deliverables.

4.159 IIT Jodhpur, Rajasthan in “Solar thermal research and education”: A project has been sanctioned to develop IIT-Jodhpur as a Centre of Excellence in Solar Thermal Research and Education. Designed and installation of Solar Air Tower Simulator (SATS) facility is completed. It is being extended for inclusion of solar convective furnace. Developed high temperature solar thermal research laboratory and so far they have achieved 360OC at a concentration of 420 suns and put target of 600OC in the next phase. New Centres of Excellence are under consideration/formulations stage in solar air conditioning, solar air heating, solar storage, solar energy systems and solar cells.

Achievements and Progress of the R&D projects

Solar Thermal (ST)

4.160 Development and demonstration of 1 MW capacity solar thermal power R&D project with 16-hour thermal storage at Mount Abu, with co-funding from German Ministry and Indian industry. The project is first of its kind to provide thermal storage of 16 hours and will be based on fully indigenously developed solar dish technology. The project is expected to be completed in March 2016. This project provide enormous opportunity in terms of product development and energy storage.

4.161 A project “30 kW cross liner-CSP system Test Unit “ sanctioned to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, University Institute of Technology, (RGVP) Bhopal in 2014. This project is in collaborated with Japan and high temperature steam is produce in this project. The project is expected to be complete in December 2015.

4.162 A megawatt scale National Solar Thermal Power Test and Simulation facility has been set up at Ministry’s National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurgaon by IIT Bombay and a consortium of industries under a project of MNRE. The test facility is aimed at helping designing solar thermal power projects based on technology parameters and climatic conditions of the locations. Trials have been started at the project site. Simulation software has also been released by IIT and now this project is handed over to NISE.

4.163 Design, Construction and Demonstration of zero energy building for Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 project sanctioned to Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay in 2014-15.
4.164 National Institute of Solar Energy has also taken over a R&D-cum-demonstration project for development of Central Receiver Technology for solar thermal power generation has been sanctioned to M/s Sunborne Energy, Gurgaon. The project aims to design and develop solar tower with an output of 1MW thermal energy. The project is taken over by NISE from M/s Sunborne Energy due to slow progress

Solar Photovoltaic (SPV)

4.165 Innovative project “Development of Solar PV and wind hybrid power plant with large scale battery storage at Kaza, Himachal Pradesh” sanctioned to Solar Energy Corporation of India, (SECI) New Delhi. The project is to develop and study and

demonstrate large scale 2.5 MW solar PV power plants in Himalayan desert regions in hybridized mode with wind power (1 MW) and of large scale battery storage (1.5 MWh) to meet load requirements of the local community. Similar type of large size Storage based solar power plants are under considerations with SECI, Delhi and J&K Govt.

4.166 A project “development of improved DS process for mc-Si wafers and their application to Solar Cells” has been sanctioned to SSN College of Engineering, Tamilnadu in January 2015. The goal of the project is to grow multi-crystalline silicon ingots with enhanced efficiency equivalent to mono crystalline wafer using directional solidification process with lower cost and higher yield.

4.167 Innovative project “Experimental grid tied solar PV power generation on a water body” sanctioned to IGNOU Community College in 2014. Developed lab Scale model, testing equipment, protocol and the standards. Similar floating solar power plants is now being proposed by Kerala Govt. in line with this R&D project’s achievements.

4.168 An initiative includes joint research programme with CSIR laboratories. Two major research projects with National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi and IICT Hyderabad was approved in 2011-12. R&D project on R&D on thin film by National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi has now been downsized during the monitoring of the project due to slow progress of the project.

4.169 Design of soft-switching converter with adaptive MPPT Controller and design, development and evaluate a laboratory prototype of an efficient smart control system for domestic roof top PV applications with bidirectional metering provision and increased efficiency of system 90-95% like projects sanctioned to Birla Institution of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan, Electrical Research and Development Association, ERDA, Gujarat and Jamia Milia Islamia University, New Delhi have been approved in 2014-15. During the progress of such type of Indigenous inverter, Industries are ready to adopt such technology with Jamia Millia Islamia, and IIT Bombay for rooftop applications based high efficiency inverters.

4.170 There has been three major projects, two in the area of solar photovoltaics and one in the area of solar thermal where the National Institute of Solar Energy, NISE, an autonomous institute of the MNRE, has collaborated with other agencies to submit major projects to the MNRE for support.

SRRA Stations

4.171 In order to strengthen the solar resource assessment and to meet the requirement of availability of Solar Radiation data, In Phase- I program, 51 SRRA stations and in Phase- II, 60 SRRA stations and 4 Advanced Measurement Stations are installed at selected locations spread all over the country. This exercise has been coordinated by National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE), Chennai an autonomous institution of the Ministry. A central server facility for data collection from all these stations has been set up at NIWE. The data so collected will be useful in developing a solar atlas for the country. In addition, all the solar power projects selected under the Mission have also set up radiation monitoring equipment at their project sites. NIWE has launched a Solar Atlas of India for firming of solar potential of the Country.

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1. Overview   2. Introduction 3. Power from Renewables - Grid Interactive
and Off - Grid Renewable Power
4. National Solar Mission 5. Renewable Energy for Rural Applications 6. Renewable Energy for Urban, Industrial and Commercial Application 7. Research, Design, Development and Demonstration in New and Renewable Energy 8. Renewable Energy in North Eastern States 9. Specialized Institutions 10. Support Programmes 11. International Renewable Energy Co-operation 12. Promotion of Official Language - Hindi I Annexure - I : Staff Strength I Annexure - II : Audit Paras