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4.1 The Ministry has been supporting programmes for the deployment of renewable energy systems and devices such as biogas plants, photovoltaic systems, biomass gasifiers, solar cookers and other solar thermal systems, etc. in rural areas of the country. The Ministry has also been implementing remote village electrification, village energy security test projects and decentralized biogas-based power generation programmes.

4.2 Biogas production is a clean low carbon technology for efficient management and conversion of organic wastes into clean renewable biogas and organic fertilizer source. It has the potential for leveraging sustainable livelihood development as well as tackling local (land, air and water) and global pollution. Biogas obtained by anaerobic digestion of cattle dung and other loose and leafy organic matters/ wastes can be used as energy source for cooking, lighting and other applications like refrigeration, electricity generation and transport applications. Since biogas plants contribute in the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) they can be put up for availing of CDM benefits thereby generating additional revenue for wider coverage and reducing cost of biogas plants to government and beneficiaries. Based on the availability of cattle dung, a potential of 12 million biogas plants exists in the country which can generate an estimated 17,340 million cubic meter of biogas. In addition, these plants also provide high quality organic manure that provides nutrients and improves the quality of soil required for sustainable productivity. During the 11th Plan it is envisaged to install 1.4 million cubic meter of biogas generation capacity in the country. These biogas plants would be capable of annual savings of about 2.4 lakh tones of LPG equivalent while producing bio-fertilizer equivalent to 628 lakh kg of urea equivalent or 116 lakh tonnes of organic manure per annum.

4.3 National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) is being implemented in the country since 1981-82 for promotion of biogas plants based on cattle dung and other organic wastes. In addition, the Ministry has started a scheme ‘Biogas based Distributed/ Grid Power Generation Programme’ (BGPG programme) from 2005-06 with a view to promote biogas based power generation, especially in the small capacity range, based on the availability of large quantity of animal wastes and wastes from forestry, rural based industries (agro/ food processing), kitchen wastes, etc. During the year 2008-09, ‘Demonstration of Integrated Technology Package on Biogas Generation Purification and Bottling’ was also taken up as a part of R&D and technology demonstration.

4.4 The NBMMP mainly caters to setting up of family type biogas plants for meeting the cooking energy needs in rural areas of the country. The availability of clean energy mitigates drudgery of rural women, reduces pressure on forests and accentuates social benefits. The existing institutional network for implementation of the programme includes State Nodal Departments/ State Nodal Agencies, and Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) following a muliti-model and multi-agency approach. These agencies, in-turn, involve their State/ District level network institutions, trained turn-key workers and private entrepreneurs. The Panchayats are also involved for selection of the beneficiaries and monitoring of the programme. In order to provide training support and technical back-up, 12 Biogas Development and Training Centers (BDTCs) have been set up in Universities, Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) and other Technical Institutes. Under this programme, during the year 2009-10 over one lakh nos. of such plants are likely to be constructed.

4.5 The NBMMP provides for Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to turn-key job workers linked with five years’ free maintenance warranty; toilet linked biogas plants using biogas in engines/ gensets and refrigerators, repair of old-non functional plants; training of users, masons, entrepreneurs/ turn-key workers and others; publicity and extension; administrative charges; and Biogas Development and Training Centers (BDTC). Keeping in


Deenbandhu family type biogas plant in district Shahdol, M.P




view the limited purchasing power of beneficiaries and increasing costs of construction of biogas plants based on the feed-back from the implementing agencies, the Ministry has revised the pattern of CFA and other incentives for various components of the programme for 2009-10. The details of the same are given in Table 4.1. The revised Administrative Approval of the programme also includes Special and Innovative Features’ with the objective of enhancing the reach of biogas plants, which, in turn, would help in achieving viability of this programme. These include introduction of competitive bidding on pilot basis for setting up biogas plants, large scale installation of biogas plants with possible CDM benefits, taking up implementation through Biogas-Fertilizer Companies/ Entrepreneurs (BGFCOs/ BGFEs), Banks, IREDA, financial institutions, Self-Help Groups, Cooperatives and NGOs and use of five per cent of outlay for establishing such innovative models for financing and implementation. In respect of repair of old non-functional biogas plants, support will be provided up to 5 percent of the outlay for the programme after, at least, five years of installation of such plants. In order to improve the database and avoid duplication it is mandatory to put up beneficiary- wise list of installation of biogas–fertilizer plants on websites of the respective implementing agencies and organizations.

4.6 With the installation of 4.12 million family type biogas plants about 34% of the potential has been realized so far. Cumulative achievements till March 2009 and target and achievements during 2009-10 under the Programme are given in Table 4.2. Installation of 1,08,529 family type biogas plants during the year 2008-09 is likely to result in the estimated annual saving of about 2.76 lakh tonnes of fuel wood equivalent and production of about 104.76 lakh kg of urea equivalent or 19.44 lakh tonnes of organic manure per year. In addition, the rural families would benefit in terms of reducing drudgery of women involved in collecting fuel wood from long distances and minimizing health hazards during cooking in smoky kitchens. It is estimated that the construction of 1,08,529 biogas plants would have generated about 3.04 million person-days of employment for skilled and unskilled workers in rural areas during the year.

Demonstration of Integrated Technology Package on Biogas- Fertilizer Plants (BGFP) for Generation, Purification/ Enrichment, Bottling and Piped Distribution of Biogas.

4.7 Under the provisions for technology demonstration of new RDD&D Policy of MNRE during the year 2008-09, the Ministry took up a new initiative for bottling of


Biogas generation, purification and bottling plant with adsorbed biogas cylinder at Talwade, Traimbak, Nasik



*Figures are being firmed up

biogas to demonstrate an Integrated Technology-package in entrepreneurial mode on medium size (200-1000 cum/day) mixed feed biogas-fertilizer plants (BGFP) for generation, purification/enrichment, bottling and piped distribution of biogas. Installation of such plants aims at meeting stationary and motive power, cooling, refrigeration and electricity needs in addition to cooking and heating requirements. There could be a huge potential of installation of medium size biogas-fertilizer plants in various villages of the country. Under the demonstration phase, the Ministry is providing a central financial assistance of 50 percent of the cost (excluding cost of land) for a limited number of such projects for implementation following an entrepreneurial mode.

4.8 So, far eight BGFP projects with aggregate capacity of 5700 cum/ day have been sanctioned in the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Punjab for their implementation during the year 2009-10. The details of sanctioned projects are given in Table 4.3.

4.9 The Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) Programme of the Ministry has been supporting development of SPV technology in the country and helped in countrywide demonstration of various photovoltaic applications. During the last three decades, the country has developed a strong research base as well as indigenous production capabilities for the manufacture of solar cells, modules and a wide range of SPV systems. The Indian SPV programme is one of the leading programmes in the world for decentralized applications of photovoltaic technology.

4.10 SPV technology converts sunlight into DC electricity without any moving parts and has been providing power for various applications including lighting, water pumping, computers, telecommunications, etc. Stand-alone SPV power plants in rural and other areas are providing power for electrification and running electrical equipments, which require reliable uninterrupted power supply. Grid connected SPV power-generating systems are being installed for augmenting the grid. SPV power plants have also been set up at the tail end of grid in rural areas to strengthen the rural grid. SPV roof top power plants are also being used for diesel savings in urban areas.

Solar Photovoltaic Demonstration Programme

4.11 The Ministry continued to provide Central Financial Assistance (CFA) in the form of subsidy for distribution and deployment of solar lanterns, home lighting systems, streetlights, stand alone SPV power plants and SPV rooftop systems during 2009-10 in the country. During the year, the Ministry supported installation of SPV systems in project mode in the States for specific applications

SPV power packs at a religious institution at Goraj, Distt. Vadodara


such as lighting the homes, streets and police stations/ posts, powering of computers in schools, PV systems for tribal hostels, bus stations, forest range offices, housing colonies, etc. The demonstration programme is being implemented through the State Nodal Agencies and other programme implementing organizations.

4.12 Under the SPV Programme of the Ministry, the SPV modules conforming to the relevant IEC Standards and balance of systems/ components including batteries, cables, switches, circuit breakers, control electronics, LEDS, CFLs, etc. and system installations conforming to the relevant national and international standards, codes and practices were applicable. Testing and certification by the Solar Energy Centre and other authorized test centres at ERTL, Kolkata and CPRI, Bangalore continued for solar lighting systems.

4.13 During the year the implementing agencies reported installation of 33,767 solar home lighting systems, 8680 street lighting systems, 68,999 solar lanterns, 106 solar pumps and 105 kWp capacity of solar power plants till 31st December 2009. Further, 14,000 LED based solar lanterns were distributed among the victims of AILA cyclone in Sundarbans West Bengal. The project of 60,000 solar lanterns for distressed/BPL farmer families in six districts of Vidharbha region in Maharashtra sanctioned during 2007-08, was completed during the year.

4.14 A total of 34,750 solar lanterns, 39,591 solar home lighting systems, 5727 solar street lights, 1.5 MWp aggregate capacity of stand-alone SPV power plants and 725 kWp SPV rooftop systems were sanctioned upto 31st December 2009. State-wise list of SPV systems sanctioned during the year upto 31.12.2009 is given in the Table 4.4.

Solar PV Lighting Systems through Bank Loans

4.15 In the last few years, several rural banks have started sanctioning loans to individuals for purchase of solar lighting systems. In order to expand the market driven activity, during the year the Ministry introduced a pilot scheme to encourage the banks to increase the coverage of solar lights through commercial loans.

4.16 Under this scheme, the Ministry provides incentives to the banks, specially the regional rural banks for some of the promotional activities such as capacity building, awareness generation and preparation of manual for procedures, software and other specified activities to extend loans to consumers to purchase solar home lighting and other solar systems for powering small loads. During the year 16 Regional Rural Banks from Bihar (1), Haryana (2), Jharkhand (1), Karnataka (1), Maharastra (1) Rajasthan (1) and Uttar Pradesh (9) have proposed to sanction loans for 1,19,000 Solar PV systems. These


Shri Deepak Gupta, Secretary MNRE (seated third from left) with senior officials of the ministry and regional rural bank with beneficiary of solar lights at village Naglia Jat, district J.P. Nagar, Uttar Pradesh


HLS- Home Lighting system, SLS- Street Lighting system and SL- Solar Lantern

banks have 3,687 branches in 133 districts. By December 2009, 37,865 loans have been sanctioned and Solar PV systems installed by rural banks. Details of micro financing of SPV systems through commercial banks in different States during 2009-10 are given in the Table 4.5.



Solar Thermal Demonstration Programme

4.17 Solar thermal demonstration programme of the Ministry aims at promoting solar thermal technologies to meet cooking energy needs, with a view to demonstrate their effectiveness and potential in reducing dependence on traditional biomass and fossil fuels. Special projects are also supported under the programme to cover other solar thermal applications such as solar drying, purification of water etc. In addition, demonstration scheme for North-Eastern States including Sikkim, Islands and Jammu and Kashmir for solar water heating systems was also implemented during the year. Solar water heating systems with a collector area of about 1500 m2 were sanctioned during the year under the programme for their installation at the sites of high visibility in different parts of these states mainly Assam, Sikkim and Tripura.

4.18 Solar cooking is one of the important applications of solar thermal energy catering to energy requirements of the people for cooking in rural and urban areas. A scheme on promotion of both box type and dish solar cookers is under implementation. Efforts are being made to develop niche areas of applications including in mid-day meal programme for schools, Aanganwaris, defense and paramilitary forces, etc. Under the scheme CFA of Rs. 1500/- is available to the user on procurement of dish solar cooker. For box cookers promotional incentive of Rs. 100/- to 200/- on each cooker is available to implementing agencies for sale of cookers in their states. The Scheme also provides financial support to the manufacturers of solar cookers for obtaining BIS approval. A total of around 6,39,000 box solar cookers and 10,200 dish solar cookers have been deployed so far in the country. Out of a total of 6,39,000 box type cookers, 2,000 cookers were deployed during the year.

4.19 In order to study the scope of solar cooking under mid-day meal in schools, visits were made by different


A solar water heating system installed in Jammu & Kashmir

officers of the Ministry to different states. The programme would be revised based on the recommendations of the officers on their visits and the discussions held with different state authorities.

4.20 A study sponsored to Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe), New Delhi to conduct an independent evaluation study of solar thermal demonstration programme has been completed during the year. The recommendations made under the study are being utilized to revise the programme for its better implementation in the years to come.

4.21 Small capacity solar dryers for drying of food products are useful in rural areas and are being promoted through NGOs, women’s self help groups etc. These dryers have been employed for drying of mango pulp, fruit bars, turmeric, fish, etc. in various parts of the country


These are manufactured by a couple of manufacturers and are being supported by the Ministry by providing financial assistance up to 50% of the cost. Over 100 such units of capacity ranging up to 50 kg/batch are working in the country, mainly in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Lakshadweep, Ladakh, Mizoram, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh.



4.22 The Remote Village Electrification Programme is being implemented by the Ministry to provide lighting/electricity using renewable energy, in those remote unelectrified villages and hamlets which are not going to be covered under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) for grid electrification. The Programme has been continued during the 11th Plan and a budget allocation of Rs.80 crore made for the year.

4.23 Although a variety of renewable energy technologies are possible for electrification of remote villages including small hydro, wind, biomass and solar energy, yet, solar PV lighting remains the most preferred. The decision to use a particular technology is taken by the state implementing agencies after examination of the technical feasibility and resource availability.

4.24 The Programme is implemented in states by notified state implementing agencies. The Ministry provides a Central Financial Assistance (CFA) of upto 90% of the costs of installation of various renewable energy devices/systems. In addition, many other promotional supports and a substantial amount of service charge are provided to the state implementing agencies.

4.25 The cumulative sanctions under the Programme since its inception reached around 10,000, villages and hamlets of which work has been completed in around 6200 villages and hamlets. The state-wise details are given in Table 4.6. A target for coverage of 10,000 villages and hamlets has been set for the 11th Plan, of which 3280 villages and hamlets have been taken up by 31.12.2009. The main states where the programme has greater relevance due to difficult access to areas are Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and the North Eastern states. Special priority is being accorded to villages affected by internal disturbances/extremism in line with the policy of the Government.

Progress during the Year

4.26 Many important steps were initiated during the year to accelerate implementation of the Programme. Some of these are:

  1. Approval by the Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure – The Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure (CCI) approved the continuation of Remote Village Electrification Programme of the Ministry for the 11th Plan. The Administrative Approval for 2009-10 incorporating the terms and conditions for implementation of the Programme, as approved by the Committee, has been issued.

  2. Constitution of the Coordination Committee – A Coordination Committee has been constituted under the chairmanship of Secretary, MNRE for the Programme in accordance with the mechanism approved by the Cabinet. The other members of the Committee include representatives of Ministry of Power, Rural Electrification Corporation, Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Planning Commission. The Committee is empowered to approve the proposals for financial support under the programme and also lay down the terms for implementation of the projects. The Committee had two meetings during the period under review.

  3. Eligibility for support – It was expanded during the year to cover:

i. All census unelectrified villages and their hamlets not covered under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana, as confirmed by REC.

Unelectrified hamlets of electrified census villages having population of more than 300 and which are situated at least 3 kms from the nearest distribution transformer of the Grid.

ii. Uncovered households which existed as on 31.12.2008, of eligible villages and hamlets which have been earlier taken up under Remote Village Electrification Programme. The list of such households/names of such beneficiaries should be endorsed by the village panchayat and subsequently by the Block Development Officer or the Chief Development Officer or the District Collector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Coordination with States - A number of review meetings were held during the year with the state implementing agencies to expedite the implementation of already sanctioned projects and also to impress upon them the need to identify early the villages and hamlets excluded from RGGVY for coverage under the Programme. Such meetings


Note: 19 projects in Madhya Pradesh, 3 in Maharashtra, 24 in Rajasthan, 4 in Karnataka, 53 in Uttarakhand, 5 in Jharkhand, 168 in Uttar Pradesh, 145 hamlets in Tripura and 51 hamlets in Tamilnadu have been cancelled by the State Governments as they were taken up for grid electrification.


Solar light installed in a REANG tribal village of South Tripura Distt under the Remote Village Electrification Programme

 

have been held at the level of Secretary with the North Eastern states, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, etc.

 

 

Training, Awareness and Orientation Programmes – In continuation of its efforts for involvement of different stakeholders, such as the concerned officials of the district and the State Electricity Board (SEB), the beneficiaries, the local elected representatives, NGOs, etc., the Ministry sponsors training and awareness programmes in different states. One such programme, targeted

Box No 4.1:
Solar Lights Illuminate Remote Villages Of Gurez Tehsil In Jammu and Kashmir

.....All the households in 27 remote villages of Gurez Tehsil of Bandipora district are now being illuminated by Solar lights. The Minister for New and Renewable Energy, Dr. Farooq Abdullah recently dedicated the solar homelighting systems installed in 3900 households in 27 villages of Gurez to the people of the area. The project has been implemented by Science and Technology Department of Jammu and Kashmir and its Jammu and Kashmir Energy Development Agency (JAKEDA) with 90% financial assistance under the Remote Village Electrification Programme of the Ministry. The solar lights will enable 30,000 people living in these villages to enjoy comfort of modern lights through pollution free technology. The systems do not require any major maintenance except for periodic topping up of batteries. A five year Annual Maintenance Contract with the suppliers is a mandatory part of the financial support. Representatives from each of the beneficiary villages have also been trained under a special training programme on minor maintenance and upkeep practices for these systems.

.....The Gurez valley of North Kashmir, which manifests the natural beauty of Kashmir in its full glory, has been deprived of conventional electrification due to its remoteness. The pass leading to the valley is much above the conifer line and the valley is cut off for almost 5 months in year from rest of the country because of snow. The eco-sensitivity of the whole region also can not be overlooked while planning a solution for electricity. On the other hand, the Central Government is committed to provide the convenience of modern lights to all households in the country as early as possible. It was in light of this that a decision was taken to provide solar lights to all the households in the remote villages of Gurez till the time conventional grid could reach there. The project costed around Rs.5 crore of which the Central Government contributed around Rs.4.5 crore. The balance has been contributed by the state government and a very nominal amount has been contributed by the beneficiaries.

.....The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and the Government of Jammu and Kashmir had earlier provided similar lighting systems to more than 8200 homes in Doda and Kupwara districts of the state. The enthusiastic acceptance of these systems by the beneficiaries further motivated the state to take up many more villages for similar benefits. Another project for covering 68 villages in Anantnag, Kulgam, Budhgam, Pulwama and Shopian districts was approved by the Centre with a financial assistance of around Rs.15 crore and is currently under implementation. More projects are being planned for remote villages in other districts of the state.

at the District Commissioners and other senior District officials of Tripura was inaugurated by the Hon’ble Chief Minister of Tripura and was attended by around 50 officials from the districts. The Chief Minister emphasized development of local skills for installation and maintenance in pursuance of which the state agency has taken up a programme for development of solar entrepreneurs from among the ITI trained persons. The programme is being fully financed by the Ministry.

 

 

 

 

Meeting of Hon’ble Minister for New and Renewable Energy with Hon’ble Chief Minister of Assam - Assam is the largest beneficiary of support under the Programme with more than 1900 villages. To ensure early and successful completion of the ongoing projects in Assam, the Hon’ble Minister for New and Renewable Energy, Dr. Farooq Abdullah, during his recent visit to Guwahati, took the opportunity to meet with the Hon’ble Chief Minister of Assam and impressed upon him the need for enhancing the organizational and financial support to the Programme so that the large number of beneficiaries could start having the comforts of modern lighting. The Chief Minister assured full support of the state for the Programme.


  1. Identification of remote unelectrified villages and hamlets by REC – The Rural Electrification Corporation has been given the responsibility to endorse names of remote villages/hamlets which are not going to be taken up under RGGVY and where grid connectivity will not be feasible. The state-wise numbers of villages and hamlets endorsed so far by REC are given in Table 4.7.



4.27 Since the 10th Plan period, a limited number of Test Projects on Village Energy Security are being taken up in very remote villages and hamlets that are unlikely to be electrified through conventional means. The scheme operates by deploying various biomass-based systems to meet total energy requirements of villages in an efficient, reliable and cost-effective manner.

Objectives and Scope

4.28 The Village Energy Security Test Projects are aimed at going beyond electrification per se by meeting the total energy requirements of villages including cooking, lighting and motive power, with full participation of the local communities, including women. The projects would be environment-friendly and create avenues for local employment, thus improving the quality of life and leading to overall sustainable development. Test projects on village energy security are being taken up to demonstrate the techno-economic parameters, provide operational experience, mobilize local communities and firm up the institutional arrangements.

4.29 The activities envisaged under these projects are a) Identification of village/ hamlet; b) Preparation of a Village Energy Plan, including assessment of resources, energy services required and configuration of energy production systems; c) Formation of a Village Energy Committee; d) Creation of Village Energy Fund; e) Plantations/installation of energy production systems; f) Operation & maintenance; and g) Capacity building and training.


4.30 The energy production systems comprise improved chulhas; biogas plants based on dung / oil cakes or leafy biomass; biomass gasifiers coupled with 100% producer gas engines; and, biofuel based engines run on 100% Straight Vegetable Oils (SVO) to meet the lighting and motive power needs. Energy plantations are an integral part of these projects.

Implementation and Financing Modalities

4.31 The test projects were being undertaken by the Gram Panchayats and facilitated by implementing agencies such as District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs), Forest Departments and NGOs till 2007-08. Based on the experience gained so far in the implementation of test projects, guidelines of VESP were revised in April 2008 and projects are now being sanctioned as per the revised guidelines. From the year 2008-09, State Nodal Agencies (SNAs) have also been included as Implementing Agencies. A Village Energy Committee (VEC) is constituted through the Gram Sabha, duly notified by the Gram Panchayat as a Sub-Committee or Standing Committee of the Gram Panchayat. The projects involve village-level planning and implementation in order to meet the total energy requirements of the village mainly through local biomass resources. The energy services are owned and maintained by the village community. The projects involve active community participation and have considerable potential for local employment generation.

4.32 90% of the project cost of the projects is met through a Central grant. The balance 10% towards the project cost is to be mobilized by the community / implementing agency / State Nodal Agency. Support is also provided towards professional charges to Implementing Agencies and administrative / service charges to State Nodal Agencies and towards O&M for a limited period. The funds released by the Ministry are placed in a bank account called Capital Account opened for this purpose by the Village Energy Committee (VEC). A Village Energy Fund is also created with initial contribution from the villagers.

Status

4.33 Since its commencement 54 test projects have so far been commissioned, of which 17 test projects were commissioned during the year 2009-10. Three new test projects have been sanctioned during the year 2009-10. Details of the projects are given in Table 4.8.


4.34 During Mid-Term Appraisal of 11th Plan in September 2009, it has been decided to concentrate on consolidating the VESP projects already taken up for implementation and take up new villages only under the RVE programme. Therefore, during the remaining period of 11th Plan, the consolidation of VESP activities will be done.

PHRD grant from World Bank for Biomass for Sustainable Development Project.

4.35 The World Bank supported a project on “Biomass for Sustainable Development” with the objective of identifying and testing scaleable models for meeting comprehensive village energy needs. Under this project, 50 ongoing test projects and 17 new test projects have been covered in eight states. Four Regional Contracts and one National Contract were awarded. The final reports of these Contracts have already been received and the project has been closed successfully in June 2009.


Box No. 4.2
Kandhal Test Project in Cuttack District of Orissa

.....Kandhal test project in Cuttack District of Orissa was completed in all respects and dedicated to the villagers in June 2009. Two gasifiers, each of 10 kW capacity were installed and commissioned under the project. Kandhal is a remote village, surrounded by forest and is situated at a distance of about 125 Kms from Cuttack. Most of the 143 households are tribals and are below poverty line beneficiaries. This project was implemented by Orissa Project & Marketing Development Centre (OPMDC), Cuttack.

.....The biomass gasifiers meet the daily requirement of domestic lighting in 150 families, community hall and primary school lighting, street lighting and other entertainment activities. Each household has been provided with two light points and one power point for domestic lighting and entertainment. One oil expeller of 100 kg/hr capacity has been installed in the project, which is being used for extraction of oil from Karanj and other edible oil-seeds. With the introduction of electricity in the village, the quality of life of the villagers has improved drastically and villagers are happy with televisions in their houses for entertainment and proper light for their children to study at night. The fear of wild animals has reduced, as 15 street lights have been installed in the village, which provide adequate illumination at night.

.....The power generated is used for many other applications, such as, flour mill, chafe/fodder cutter machines and water pumps. Twenty biogas plants have also been installed in the village for meeting their cooking & lighting requirements. The lighting from biogas plants is facilitating women to work at night in making Dona Patta from Sal / Teak leaves.

.....The VEC has undertaken plantation of Karanj & fuel wood on 10.5 hectares land, which would provide biomass for running the gasifiers and oil seeds for running the oil expeller. The smiles on the faces of the villagers after introduction of electricity speak volumes about success of the project.

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