Bio Energy

Overview

Bio Mass

1. INTRODUCTION 

Biomass has always been an important energy source for the country considering the benefits it offers.  It is renewable, widely available, carbon-neutral and has the potential to provide significant employment in the rural areas.  Biomass is also capable of providing firm energy.  About 32% of the total primary energy use in the country is still derived from biomass and more than 70% of the country’s population depends upon it for its energy needs.  Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has realised the potential and role of biomass energy in the Indian context and hence has initiated a number of programmes for promotion of efficient technologies for its use in various sectors of the economy to ensure derivation of maximum benefits.  For efficient utilization of biomass, bagasse based cogeneration in sugar mills and biomass power generation have been taken up under biomass power and cogeneration programme.

Biomass power & cogeneration programme is implemented with the main objective of promoting technologies for optimum use of country’s biomass resources for grid power generation.  Biomass materials used for power generation include bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, coconut shells, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, coffee waste, jute wastes, groundnut shells, saw dust etc. 

2. POTENTIAL

The current availability of biomass in India is estimated at about 500 million metric tonnes per year.    Studies sponsored by the Ministry has estimated surplus biomass availability at about 120-150 million metric tonnes per annum covering agricultural and forestry residues corresponding to a potential of about 18,000 MW.  This apart, about 7000 MW additional power could be generated through bagasse based cogeneration in the country’s 550 Sugar mills, if these sugar mills were to adopt technically and economically optimal levels of cogeneration for extracting power from the bagasse produced by them

3. TECHNOLOGY

3.1 Combustion

The thermo chemical processes for conversion of biomass to useful products involve combustion, gasification or pyrolysis. The most commonly used route is combustion. The advantage is that the technology used is similar to that of a thermal plant based on coal, except for the boiler.  The cycle used is the conventional rankine cycle with biomass being burnt in high-pressure boiler to generate steam and operating a turbine with the generated steam. The exhaust of the steam turbine can either be fully condensed to produce power, or used partly or fully for another useful heating activity. The latter mode is called cogeneration. In India, cogeneration route finds application mainly in industries.

3.2 Cogeneration In Sugar Mills

Sugar industry has been traditionally practicing cogeneration by using bagasse as a fuel.  With the advancement in the technology for generation and utilization of steam at high temperature and pressure, sugar industry can produce electricity and steam for their own requirements.  It can also produce significant surplus electricity for sale to the grid using same quantity of bagasse.  For example, if steam generation temperature/pressure is raised from 400oC/33 bar to 485oC/66 bar, more than 80 KWh of additional electricity can be produced for each ton of cane crushed.  The sale of surplus power generated through optimum cogeneration would help a sugar mill to improve its viability, apart from adding to the power generation capacity of the country. 

4. DEPLOYMENT 

The Ministry has been implementing biomass power/co-generation programme since mid-nineties. Over 500 biomass power and bagasse cogeneration projects aggregating to 9806 MW capacity has been installed in the country for feeding power to the grid. States which have taken leadership position in implementation of bagasse cogeneration projects are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The leading States for biomass power projects are Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.   

5. CENTRAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND FISCAL INCENTIVES  

5.1 CFA for Biomass Power Project and Bagasse Cogeneration Projects by Private/Joint/Coop./Public Sector Sugar Mills

Project Type

Capital Subsidy

Biomass Bagasse Co-generation Projects

Rs.25 lakh X (C* MW)

Biomass (Non-Bagasse) Co-generation projects






 

Rs.50 lakh X (C** MW)


**Installed Capacity*Surplus Exportable Capacity

Note:   CFA is subject to change.

6. Current Status

A total capacity of 9806 MW has been installed in Biomass Power and Cogeneration Sector.

Grid Connected – 9131 MW

Off-grid – 675 MW

State-wise break up is given below:-

STATE-WISE/YEAR-WISE LIST OF INSTALLED CAPACITY OF GRID CONNECTED BIOMASS POWER AND BAGASSE COGENERATION PROJECTS DURING LAST FIVE YEARS AS PER THE DATA RECEIVED FROM SNAs (AS ON 31.07.2019)

State

Upto 31.03.2016

(in MW)

2016-17

(in MW)

2017-18

(in MW)

2018-19

(in MW)

2019-20

(in MW)

Cumulative Installed Capacity

(in MW)

As on 31.07.2019

Andhra Pradesh

378.2

0

0

0

0

378.2

Bihar

104

9

0

0

0

113

Chhattisgarh

228

0

0

0

0

228

Gujarat

65.3

0

0

0

0

65.3

Haryana

96.4

0

25

0

0

121.4

Karnataka

1402

50

301.6

30

28

1811.6

Madhya Pradesh

93

0

0

0

0

93

Maharashtra

1967

98

105

329.7

0

2499.7

Telangana

158.1

0

0

0

0

158.1

Punjab

179

0

15

0

194

Rajasthan

114.35

4.95

0

0

119.3

Tamilnadu

878

0

48

43

0

969

Uttarakhand

73

0

0

0

0

73

Uttar Pradesh

1933

0

24.5

0

0

1957.5

West Bengal

300

0

0

0

0

300

Odisha

50.4

0

0

0

0

50.4

Total

8019.75

161.95

519.1

402.7

28

9131


STATE-WISE/YEAR-WISE LIST OF INSTALLED CAPACITY OF BIOMASS (NON-BAGASSE) COGENERATION PROJECTS DURING LAST FIVE YEARS AS PER THE DATA RECEIVED FROM SNAs(AS ON 31.07.2019)

Name of State/UT

Up to 31.03.2014

(In MW)

2014-15

(In MW)

2015-16

(In MW)

2016-17

(In MW)

2017-18

(In MW)

2018-19

(In MW)

Cumulative Installed Capacity (as on 31.07.2019)

Andhra Pradesh

75.42

3.17

20.39

-

-

-

98.98

Chhattisgarh

2.50

-

-

-

-

-

2.50

Haryana

35.91

21.65

25.5

1.20

-

-

84.26

Himachal Pradesh

7.20

-

-

-

-

-

7.20

Kerala

0.72

-

-

-

-

-

0.72

Karnataka

15.20

-

-

-

-

15.20

Madhya Pradesh

12.35

-

-

-

-

-

12.35

Maharashtra

16.40

-

-

-

-

16.40

Meghalaya

13.80

-

-

-

-

-

13.80

Odisha

2.94

5.28

0.6

-

-

-

8.82

Punjab

110.65

6.45

-

1

5

-

123.10

Bihar

8.20

-

-

-

-

8.20

Rajasthan

2.00

-

-

-

-

-

2.00

Jharkhand

1.20

3.10

-

-

-

-

4.30

Uttar Pradesh

150.86

5.40

1.75

-

-

-

158.01

Uttarakhand

42.50

5.00

10

-

-

-

57.50

West Bengal

17.42

2.50

-

-

-

-

19.92

Tamilnadu

16.55

7.50

-

-

4.5

-

28.55

Telangana

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

Gujarat

-

-

-

-

-

12

12

Total

531.82

60.05

59.24

2.2

9.5

12

674.81



Biogas    

Brief Introduction: Biogas is produced when bio-degradable organic materials/wastes such as catle-dung, biomass from farms, gardens, kitchens, industry, poultry droppings, night soil and municipals wastes are subjected to a scientific process, called Anaerobic Digestion (A.D.) in a Biogas Plants. Biogas Plant designs depend upon several factors and the feed stock to be processed is of paramount importance. Biogas is the mixture of gases (primarily methane (CH4) and Carbon di-oxide (CO2) and traces of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Moisture) produced by the decomposition/breakdown of bio-degradable organic matter in the absence of oxygen from raw materials such as agricultural waste, cattle dung, poultry droppings, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food/kitchen waste. Biogas has a calorific value of about 5000 kcal per m3. The digested slurry produced from Biogas Plants as a by-product is a better source of nutrient enriched organic manure for use in Agriculture. It not only helps in improving the crop yield but also maintain soil health.

There is ample potential of setting up biogas plants considering the livestock population of 512.06 million, which includes about 300 million (299.98 million) total population of bovines (comprising of cattle, buffalo, mithun and yak). The livestock sector contributes about significantly to India’s GDP and will continue to increase. The dissemination of biogas technology is a boon for Indian farmers with its direct and collateral benefits.

2. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy promotes installation of biogas plants by implementing 2 Central Sector Schemes under Off-Grid/distributed and decentralized Renewable Power. The two on going schemes are:

      i. New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme (NNBOMP), for Biogas Plant size ranging from 1 cu.m. to 25 cu.m. per day.

    ii. Biogas Power Generation (Off-grid) and Thermal energy application Programme (BPGTP), for setting up biogas plants in the size range of 30 m3 to 2500 m3 per day,  for corresponding power generation capacity  range of 3 kW to 250 kW from biogas or  raw biogas for thermal energy /cooling applications.

 

Biogas contains about 55-65 % of methane, 35- 44 % of carbon dioxide and traces of other gases, such as Hydrogen Sulphide, Nitrogen and Ammonia. Biogas, in its raw form, that is without any purification, can be used as clean cooking fuel like LPG, lighting, motive power and generation of electricity. It can be used in diesel engines to substitute diesel up to 80% and up to 100% replacement of diesel by using 100% Biogas Engines. Further, Biogas can be purified and upgraded up to 98% purity of methane content to make it suitable to be used as a green and clean fuel for transportation or filling in cylinders at high pressure of 250 bar or so and called as Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG).

 

3.Initially, Biogas Plants were developed for digesting cattle dung. However, over a period of time, technology has been developed for the bio-methanation of various types of biomass materials and organic wastes. Biogas plant designs are now available from 0.5 M3 to 1000 M3 unit size or more and multiples of that can be installed for achieving higher Biogas Plant sizes, depending upon availability of the raw material such as for family/ household, small farmers, dairy farmers and for community, institutional and industrial/ commercial applications. The unit size of industrial and municipal wastes based biogas plants may go up to 15000 Mto 20000 M3 biogas production per day.

  4.Design and approved models:

MNRE has approved various designs of biogas plants and the same have become proven ones for field worthiness. Indian standards for Biogas Plants, accessories and appliances have been also brought out by the MNRE and BIS. The process is a on going one. There are 4 types of basic model and 10 types of designs of biogas plants approved under the NNBOMP. The details of which are available in the scheme Guidelines. All approved designs are eligible for financial subsidies and other facilities uniformly across the country.  

5. Government of India, MNRE, continuous to give high priority for the development and utilization of biogas as energy in its various forms.  Under the National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP), about 50.0 Lakh (5 Million) Family size plants have been installed up to 2017-18. The NBMMP scheme has been redesigned, modified and renamed as New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme (NNBOMP) and continued from 2018-19 with the aim to enhance the biogas production from small Biogas plants of 1 to 25 M3 capacity. The scheme aims to set up about 2.5 Lakh units of Biogas plants of various sizes in the above mentioned capacity range with an overall biogas generation of about 8 lakh Cu. M. per day. The Government of India, MNRE, has also enhanced the CFA for various approved components. Now 100% biogas engines in smaller capacity ranges are available, and the surplus biogas can be utilized for meeting lighting, small power and electricity requirement from a Biogas Plant.

For encouraging farmers to use nutrient enriched organic bio-manure, the scheme also aims for value addition of the biogas plant slurry by linking it with enrichment units such as vermicomposting, Phosphate Rich Organic Manure (PROM) plants and other organic enrichment facilities as a source of an additional income and saving in chemical fertilizers bills of farmers.   

 

6. Potential and Achievement for Family/Small size Biogas plants from 1981-82 to 2018-19 under NPBD/NBMMP and NNBOMP.

Based on the initial estimated potential of 12.3 million Biogas plants, a cumulative total of 50.28 Lakh family/small size biogas plants have been set up in the country till 2018-19, under the National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD), National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) and New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme (NNBOMP). The State/UT-wise estimated potential and  cumulative total numbers family size/small biogas plants installed under the above mentioned 3 National Programmes Biogas Technology dissemination  are given in Table-1 below-

 Table-1

State/UT--wise estimated potential and cumulative achievements for family type/ small biogas plants up to 2018-19 under the NPBD, National Biogas and Manure Management Programme (NBMMP) and New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme (NNBOMP).

 

State/ Union Territories

Estimated

Potential

( Nos. of Biogas Plants)

Cumulative achievement up to 2018-19*

(31/03/2019)

(Nos. of Biogas Plants)

1

2

3

Andhra Pradesh

1065000

555294

Arunachal Pradesh

7500

3591

Assam

307000

138423

Bihar

733000

129905

Chhattisgarh

400000

58908

Goa

8000

4226

Gujarat

554000

434995

Haryana

300000

62825

Himachal Pradesh

125000

47680

Jammu & Kashmir

128000

3195

Jharkhand

100000

7823

Karnataka

680000

503935

Kerala

150000

152019

Madhya Pradesh

1491000

373037

Maharashtra

897000

918201

Manipur

38000

2128

Meghalaya

24000

10659

Mizoram

5000

5838

Nagaland

6700

7953

Odisha

605000

271656

Punjab

411000

183835

Rajasthan

915000

72132

Sikkim

7300

9044

Tamil Nadu

615000

223618

Telangana

-

19694

Tripura

28000

3688

Uttar Pradesh

1938000

440385

Uttarakhand

83000

363615

West Bengal

695000

972

A&N Islands

2200

97

Chandigarh

1400

169

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

2000

681

Daman & Diu

-

0

Lakshdweep

-

0

Delhi/ New Delhi

12900

578

Puducherry

4300

17541

KVIC Mumbai

-

0

TOTAL :

12339300

50,28,340*

* Figures to be firmed up for some of the States after receipt of audited figures.    


7. Biogas based Power Generation (Off-grid) and Thermal Application Programme (BPGTP)

 Biogas plants are reliable source of decentralized Renewable Energy for heating, cooking as well as generating electricity/ power generation and thermal energy application alternatives in our country.  In  order  to  promote  this  Decentralized  Renewable Energy Source (DRES) of  power  generation,  specifically  in  the  small  capacity range (3 kW to 250 kW) and thermal energy for heating/cooling  from the biogas produced from Biogas plants of 30 M3 to 2500 M3  size, operated  based  on the availability  of required quantity of biodegradable organic waste(s).

The organic bio-degradable wastes from various sources such as cattle dung/ animal wastes, food & kitchen waste, poultry dropping waste, agro-industry waste etc. are the feed stock for Biogas plants. These plants are especially beneficial for meeting Off-grid Power requirements for individual dairy and poultry plants, dairy co-operatives for operation of dairy equipment and other electrical, thermal and cooling energy requirements for plant operation. The installations of such biogas systems replaces diesel in DG sets and also reduce the electricity bills of the individual farmers/ beneficiary, entrepreneurs, dairy farmer, dairy co-operatives thereby helping to increase the income of farmers/ end users. The nutreient enriched organic bio-manure is another stream of income generation from biogas projects and at the same time saving in the expenditure of chemical fertilizers by reduction of use of chemical fertilizers and other profitable ventures like organic farming. 

7.2 Achievements so far under the BPP/BPGTP programmes: 

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy after implementing the programme on community/ institutional Biogas plants successfully, turned the focus towards setting up of medium size biogas plants for generation of electricity and/or use of biogas for various thermal and cooling application. A scheme was designed and launched in the year 2006-07 for Biogas based Power Generation (Off-grid). Since then, a total of 389 power projects have been commissioned up to 2018-19 (31.03.2019).

STATE WISE CUMULATIVE ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER BIOGAS POWER (OFF-GRID) PROGRAMME UP TO 2018-19 (FINALIZED AS ON 31.03.2019)

S.No

Name of the state

Installed

 

 

Nos

M3

kW

1

Andhra Pradesh

34

4320

481

2

Gujrat

2

285

30

3

Haryana

3

2540

155

4

Karnataka

70

15670

1581.5

5

Maharashtra

68

11690

1257.5

6

Punjab

41

9980

1035

7

Rajasthan

2

120

15

8

Tamil Nadu

52

30360

2853.5

9

Uttarakhand

17

1070

124

10

Uttar Pradesh

30

4400

591

11

Madhya Pradesh

6

735

70

12

Kerala

36

1010

118

13

West Bengal

1

340

60

14

Odisha

2

60

10

15

Telangana

25

5410

574

 

 

389

87990

8951.5

 

7.3 Biogas plants installed under the scheme meets the electrical or thermal requirements of the beneficiaries and dairy farmers and other organizations. It is used for milk chilling applications and other general applications such as pumping, lighting, irrigation as well as cooking. The farmers can also sell out surplus biogas/ electricity to his neighbours in off-grid mode.

Impact of biogas power plants:

Based on the data reported and evaluation done through third party study, the overall impact of the programme implementation was observed to be encouraging. As revealed from the table given below, for a case study of 45 Biogas plants and extrapolated for 163 projects,

Paramter Values*

Total No. of Plants

163

Annual Energy Cost Savings (In Rs. Lakhs)

787

Annual CO2 Savings (In Tons)

9587

Annual Bio-manure Production (In Tons)

32582

Direct Employment (Man-days)

63438

In-Direct Employment (Man-days)

56894

 

7.4. Implementation of BPGTP:

The BPGTP Scheme is being implemented by the Agriculture and Rural Development Departments of the States and Dairy Cooperatives. However, the programme is also implemented through the State Renewable Energy Agencies (SNAs), Biogas Development and Training Centres (BDTCs), Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) and National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in States where Agriculture and State Rural Development Departments are not in a position to implement. The Programme Implementing Agencies (PIAs) may take help of Panchayati Raj Institutions/ Local Bodies (LBs) as an overarching Institutions allowing need based interventions under the community development programme in rural areas as well as areas to cover North Eastern Areas, Forest Fringe Villages, in large population concentration of SC/ ST communities including in tribal areas. 

   




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