Bio-Energy

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RD&D Thrust areas & Major activities for 11th Plan

1. Bio-energy

It is proposed to take up focused RD&D projects in the area of bio-energy resource identification and biomass conversion to energy through combustion, pyrolysation, atmospheric and high pressure gasification, plasma,bio-methanation and Biogas.

(i) Bio-energy Resource

Resource Atlas for Bio-energy covering crop residues, forest residues, MSW, industrial wastes etc.

(ii) Biomass Conversion

a) Development of MW-scale fluidized bed biomass gasifiers, hot gas clean up system and optimum integration of the system following the principles of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).

b) Development of poly-generation facilities for the production of liquid fuels, variety of chemicals and hydrogen in addition to power production through IGCC route and establishing the concept of a Bio-refinery.

c) Raising efficiency of atmospheric gasification to 25-30% along with cooling systems, complete tar decomposition and safe disposal of wastes in commercial production.

d) Raising system efficiency of small (upto 1 MW) combustion and turbine technologies to 20% plus.

e) Design and Development of high rate anaerobic co-digestion systems for biogas/ synthetic gas production.

f) Development of gasifier systems based on charcoal / pyrolysed biomass.

g) Design and development of systems for their coupling with Stirling engine and turbines.

h) Development of efficient kilns/ systems for charcoal production/ pyrolysation of biomass

i) Laying down standards for various bio-energy components, products and systems.

(iii) Bio-energy Utilization

a) Design and development of engines, Stirling engine and micro-turbine for biogas/ producer gas/ bio-syngas.

b) Design and development of direct gas fired absorptive chillers, driers, stoves, etc., and improvement in biomass furnaces, boilers etc.

c) Improved design and development of processes/ de-watering device for drying of digested slurry.

d) Improving/ upgrading biogas and syngas quality.

e) Improved design and development of Pelletisation/ Briquetting technology for RDF.

f) Development of driers for MSW and industrial wastes.

g) Design and development of equipment for waste segregation.

2. Bio-Fuels

a) Develop technology for production of ethanol from sweet sorghum and sugar beet.

b) Developed technology for production of ethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials such as rice straw and other agricultural and forestry residues.

c) Study petrol engine performance using more than 10% blend of ethanol with petrol and undertaking engine modifications including emission studies with different levels of ethanol blend with petrol.

d) Study physico-chemical properties of all potential non-edible oils for production of bio-diesel for application in transport, stationary and other applications.

e) Developing efficient chemical/catalyst conversion processes.

f) Development of bio-catalyst and heterogeneous catalyst for production of bio-diesel.

g) Alternate use of bio products.

h) Data generation and production of bio-diesel from all possible feed-stocks.

i) Response of different available additives and their dosages on the bio-diesel.

j) Effect of bio-diesel on corrosion.

k) Stability of bio-diesel.

l) Engine performance and emissions based on different feed-stock based bio-diesels.

m) Toxicological studies and test to check adulteration.

n) Engine modifications for using more than 20% bio-diesel as blend with diesel.

o) Design and development bio-liquid fuel engines for stationery, portable and transport applications.

p) Development of second-generation bio-liquid fuels and related applications.

q) Response of different available additives and their dosages on the bio-diesel.

3. Bio-Gas

i) Studies in the field of micro-biology, bio-chemistry and engineering for increasing the biogas yield by at least a factor of two, especially at low and high temperatures;

ii) Reduction in the capital cost of biogas plants; development of materials and techniques, which are amenable for local level fabrication to reduce the time of installation;

iii) Diversification of feed stocks to utilise alternate biomass wastes along with cattle dung for setting up household biogas plants;

iv) Methods for sustaining biogas production during winter months;

v) Value added products using biogas slurry manure;

vi) Development of biogas micro turbines and engines;

vii) Cleaning and bottling of biogas for ease of transportation and usages;

viii) Local power grids compatible with dual fuel engines and gas engines/turbines;

ix) Corrosion resistant paints and sealants for biogas plant components;

x) Portable biogas lantern;

xi) Incorporation of advanced bio-reactor techniques in institutional biogas plants based on cattle dung for improving efficiency;

xii) Removal of hydrogen sulphide from biogas produced in Night soil based biogas plants;

xiii) Additional treatment methods for effluent from Night soil based biogas plants;

xiv) Field trials, demonstration of new models and products, preparation of standards specifications on design and appliances.

xv) On-site waste water treatment for small and medium communities (500-5000 peoples).